Thursday, February 27, 2020
A Clear Chapter by Chapter Synopsis of The President as Leader by Erwin C. Hargrove - Essay Example Case studies Ã ¿f real-life leaders help clarify Hargrove's complex model: Franklin Roosevelt, whom Hargrove regards as the model modern president because he used rhetoric to gain support for such significant policies as social security and an end to isolationism; Lyndon Johnson, who, although he inspired the public on civil rights, was frustrated by Vietnam because Ã ¿f his obsession with control; and Ronald Reagan, who connected with the public on values but faltered because he failed to verify the accuracy Ã ¿f his rhetoric. Primarily Ã ¿f interest to political scientists, the book is recommended for larger public and academic presidential studies collections.The chapter one of the book, Power and Purpose in Political Leadership, Hargrove defines characteristics of political leadership. As the title suggest, the chapter discusses as examples powers used by some American presidents. Hargrove argues that Carter's approach eschewed political advantage as a criterion for formulati ng policy, but that compromise might be necessary. The second chapter, Conceptions of Leadership, explains leadership qualities. The power Ã ¿f the policy to sustain itself is strengthened by comprehensiveness, which implies a long-term view rather than a quick fix. The importance of culture is discussed in the third chapter of the book, Cultural Leadership, where Hargrove has discussed cultural background of many American presidents. For Carter, political leadership was not so much doing what's right instead f what's political as it was doing the political in the right way. Consequently, existing theory is hard-pressed to classify the Carter administration on the basis f a predisposition for or against centralization. As a Democrat and political leader following a public goods approach to governing, it would not be unreasonable to expect a tendency toward centralization f policy making in the White House, especially on domestic priorities. This would allow Carter to control the content f policy important for his substantive approach. On the other hand, like most presidents, Carter entered office with an eye toward cabinet government and a reliance on expertise as a guiding force for policy making. Carter's public goods philosophy led him to choose experts to head governmental departments. This foreshadowed an approach to governance based on specialization and on a willingness to formulate substantive policy addre ssing major problems. Neither politics nor the strategy f politicization had much to do with cabinet appointments. Nelson Polsby notes that the Carter cabinet in particular was characterized by curious neutrality...toward the vast stew f interest groups...that make up the traditional Democratic coalition. In sum, using Carter as a case study presents a theoretical paradox. On the one hand, his theory f governing leads to the expectation that policy making, especially on domestic priorities, would be centralized. On the other, he valued expertise, which leads one to expect that he would place a high value on policy developed by civil servants in the bureaucracy. Thus, the analyst f presidential administration can learn much by examining the Carter experience. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters of the books, tiled Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon B. Johnson and Ronald Reagan, respectively, have discussed three great presidents of the United States as case studies. In these chapters, the writer has explained leadership, decision making and some other qualities of these president. One successful case and
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Fan fiction story - Essay Example Since time immemorial, it has always been the fascination of mankind to see an intelligent being from another planet. Yet, aside from rumors that extra territestrials had been caught or found, nothing was ever proven that almost all scientist abandoned the idea of finding one, except for Dr. Nogrady, the eccentric scientist of NASA. So Professor X send a signal to the goldilocks planet Gliese 581 g hoping to prove that an intelligent being exists out there. Nobody took Dr. Nogrady effort seriously dismissing that the Professor has been chasing a pipe dream of looking for something that does not exist. A wasted genius they say. But the signal was still sent into that goldilock region of the universe. Then suddenly, a response. Dr. Nogradywas ecstatic, he himself cannot believe that his transmission were returned. For the first time in the history of science, a contact was made with an intelligent creature light years away. Through the help of a team of expert of linguists, Dr. Nogrady team were able to understand the language of the alien. The creatureÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Apex. He was a male and an astronaut from planet Gliese 581 g who just like Dr. Nogrady, has also been scouring through the stars for a possible contact with an intelligent being. ... Earth does not have the technology yet to visit Planet Gliese 581 g so it was agreed that it will be ApexÃ¢â¬â¢s team who would be visiting the Earth. According to Dr. NogradyÃ¢â¬â¢s estimate, the aliens will be arriving on earth six months from now. Necessary preparations were made for the arrival of ApexÃ¢â¬â¢s party. All honors were conferred to Dr. Nogrady who rose to sudden popularity due to his recent contact with an extra terrestrial being. He also received unlimited funding from the United NationÃ¢â¬â¢s for his research and was made in-charge of the receiving party since it was only Professor X who was privy in communicating with ApexÃ¢â¬â¢s party. The initial contact will be made in the vast desert of Sahara desert in Africa since it was anticipated that ApexÃ¢â¬â¢s ship will be huge since it has to travel in space. The day arrived. Apex made an excited announcement that his ship has already landed in the designated landing field which Dr. Nogrady prepared for Ap exÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival. Yet Dr. Nogrady cannot find the ship. He asked for confirmation from Apex who replied they have landed as confirmed by the engineer of Dr. NogradyÃ¢â¬â¢s triangulation that they are already in the designated landing field. But they cannot be found. Suddenly the communication made a blip with ApexÃ¢â¬â¢s cry, why are you attacking us? We came in good faith and friendship! Dr. Nogrady replied, attack what? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s getting dark, why are you sending your monsters to attack us! A series of cry was heard from the radio of Apex, yet nothing can be found in the landing field. Until finally, a distress call was heard from com of Apex, with a call Ã¢â¬Å"this is Captain Apex of Ship Amegdala on exploration to Earth, we are under attack and cannot survive, please send in rescue immediately!