Monday, September 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Dear Diary,Ã¢â¬ Elena whispered, Ã¢â¬Å"how frustrating is this? I left you in the trunk of the Jaguar and it's two o'clock in the morning.Ã¢â¬ She stabbed her finger on the leg of her nightgown as if she had a pen and was making a period. She whispered even more softly, leaning her forehead against the window, Ã¢â¬Å"And I'm afraid to go outside Ã¢â¬â in the dark Ã¢â¬â and get you. I'm afraid!Ã¢â¬ She made another stab and then, feeling tears slip down her cheeks, reluctantly turned her mobile on to record. It was a stupid waste of the battery, but she couldn't help it. She needed this. Ã¢â¬Å"So here I am,Ã¢â¬ she said softly, Ã¢â¬Å"sitting up in the backseat of the car. This has to be my diary entry for today. By the way, we made a rule for this road trip Ã¢â¬â I sleep in the Jag's backseat and it's the Great Outdoors for Matt and Damon. Right now it's so dark outside that I can't see Matt anywhereÃ¢â¬ ¦. But I've been going crazy Ã¢â¬â crying and feeling lost Ã¢â¬â and so lonely for StefanÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Å"We have to get rid of the Jaguar Ã¢â¬â it's too big, too red, too flashy, and too memorable when we're trying not to be remembered as we travel to the place where we can free Stefan. After the car is sold, the lapis lazuli and diamond pendant Stefan gave me the day before he disappeared will be the most precious thing I have left. The day beforeÃ¢â¬ ¦Stefan got tricked into going away, thinking he could become an ordinary human being. And nowÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"How can I stop thinking about what They might be doing to him, at this very second Ã¢â¬â whoever Ã¢â¬ËThey' are? Probably the kitsune, the evil fox spirits at the prison called the Shi no Shi.Ã¢â¬ Elena paused to wipe her nose on her nightgown sleeve. Ã¢â¬Å"How did I ever get myself into this situation?Ã¢â¬ She shook her head, hit the seatback with her clenched fist. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe if I could figure that out, I could come up with Plan A. I always have a Plan A. And my friends always have a Plan B and C to help me.Ã¢â¬ Elena blinked hard, thinking of Bonnie and Meredith. Ã¢â¬Å"But now I'm frightened that I'll never see them again. And I'm scared for the entire town of Fell's Church.Ã¢â¬ For a moment she sat with her clenched fist on her knee. A small voice inside her was saying, Ã¢â¬Å"So stop whining, Elena, and think. Think. Start from the beginning.Ã¢â¬ The beginning? What was the beginning? Stefan? No, she had lived in Fell's Church long before Stefan came. Slowly, almost dreamily, she spoke into her mobile. Ã¢â¬Å"In the first place: who am I? I'm Elena Gilbert, age eighteen.Ã¢â¬ Even more slowly, she said, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ ¦don't think it's vain to say that I'm beautiful. If I didn't know I was, I'd have to have never looked in a mirror or heard a compliment. It's not something I should be proud of Ã¢â¬â it's just something that was passed down from Mom and Dad. Ã¢â¬Å"What do I look like? I have blond hair that falls in sort of waves past my shoulders and blue eyes that some people have said are like lapis lazuli: dark blue with splashes of gold.Ã¢â¬ She gave a half-choked laugh. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe that's why vampires like me.Ã¢â¬ Then her lips tightened and, staring into the utter blackness around her, she spoke seriously. Ã¢â¬Å"A lot of boys have called me the most angelic girl in the world. And I played around with them. I just used them Ã¢â¬â for popularity, for amusement, for whatever. I'm being honest, all right? I considered them to be toys or trophies.Ã¢â¬ She paused. Ã¢â¬Å"But there was something else. Something that I knew all my life was coming Ã¢â¬â but I didn't know what. I felt as if I were searching for something that I could never find with boys. None of my scheming or playing around with them ever touched myÃ¢â¬ ¦deepest heartÃ¢â¬ ¦until one very special boy came along.Ã¢â¬ She stopped and swallowed and said it again. Ã¢â¬Å"One very special boy. Ã¢â¬Å"His name was Stefan. Ã¢â¬Å"And he turned out not to be what he looked like, a normal Ã¢â¬â but gorgeous Ã¢â¬â high school senior with rumpled dark hair and eyes as green as emeralds. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan Salvatore turned out to be a vampire. Ã¢â¬Å"A real vampire.Ã¢â¬ Elena had to pause to take a few choked breaths before she could get the next words out. Ã¢â¬Å"And so did his gorgeous older brother, Damon.Ã¢â¬ She bit her lips, and it seemed a long time later that she added, Ã¢â¬Å"Would I have loved Stefan if I'd known he was a vampire from the beginning? Yes! Yes! Yes! I'd have fallen in love with him no matter what! But it changed things Ã¢â¬â and it changed me.Ã¢â¬ Elena's finger traced a pattern on her nightgown by touch alone. Ã¢â¬Å"You see, vampires show love by exchanging blood. The problem wasÃ¢â¬ ¦that I was sharing blood with Damon, too. Not really by choice, but because he was after me constantly, day and night.Ã¢â¬ She let out a sigh. Ã¢â¬Å"What Damon says is that he wants to make me a vampire and his Princess of the Night. What that translates into is: he wants me all to himself. But I wouldn't trust Damon on anything unless he gave his word. That's one quirk he has, he never breaks his word.Ã¢â¬ Elena could feel an odd smile curling her lips, but she was speaking calmly now, fluently, the mobile almost forgotten. Ã¢â¬Å"A girl involved with two vampiresÃ¢â¬ ¦well, there's bound to be trouble, isn't there? So maybe I deserved what I got. Ã¢â¬Å"I died. Ã¢â¬Å"Not just Ã¢â¬Ëdied' like when your heart stops and they resuscitate you and you come back talking about almost going into the Light. I went into the Light. Ã¢â¬Å"I died. Ã¢â¬Å"And when I came back Ã¢â¬â what a surprise! I was a vampire. Ã¢â¬Å"Damon wasÃ¢â¬ ¦kind to me, I suppose, when I first woke up as a vampire. Maybe that's the reason I still haveÃ¢â¬ ¦feelings for him. He didn't take advantage of me when he could have easily. Ã¢â¬Å"But I only had time to do a few things in my vampire life. I had time to remember Stefan and love him more than ever Ã¢â¬â since I knew, then, how difficult everything was for him. I got to listen to my own memorial service. Ha! Everybody should get a chance to do that. I learned to always, always wear lapis lazuli so I wouldn't become a vampire Crispy Critter. I got to say good-bye to my little four-year-old sister, Margaret, and visit Bonnie and MeredithÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ Tears were still sliding almost unnoticed down Elena's face. But she spoke quietly. Ã¢â¬Å"And then Ã¢â¬â I died again. Ã¢â¬Å"I died the way a vampire dies, when they don't have lapis lazuli in the sunlight. I didn't crumble into dust; I was only seventeen. But the sun poisoned me anyway. Going was almostÃ¢â¬ ¦peaceful. That was when I made Stefan promise to take care of Damon, always. And I think Damon swore to take care of Stefan, in his mind. And that was how I died, with Stefan holding me and Damon beside me as I simply drifted away, like going to sleep. Ã¢â¬Å"After that, I had dreams I don't remember, and then suddenly, one day everyone was surprised because I was talking to them through Bonnie, who is very psychic, poor thing. I guess I had landed the job of being Fell's Church's guardian spirit. There was a danger to the town. They had to fight it and somehow, when they were sure that they had lost, I got dumped back to the world of the living to help. And Ã¢â¬â well, when the war was won I was left with these weird powers I don't understand. But there was Stefan, too! We were together again!Ã¢â¬ Elena wrapped her arms around herself tightly and held on as if she were holding Stefan to her, imagining his warm arms around her. She shut her eyes until her breathing slowed. Ã¢â¬Å"About my powers, let's see. There's telepathy, which I can do if the other person is telepathic Ã¢â¬â which all vampires are, but to different degrees unless they're actually sharing blood with you at the time. And then there are my Wings. Ã¢â¬Å"It's true Ã¢â¬â I have Wings! And the Wings have powers you wouldn't believe Ã¢â¬â the only problem being that I don't have the faintest idea how to use them. There's one that I can feel sometimes, like right now, trying to get out of me, trying to shape my lips to name it, trying to move my body into the right stance. It's Wings of Protection and that sounds like something we could really use on this trip. But I can't even remember how I made the old Wings work Ã¢â¬â much less figure out how to use this new one. I say the words until I feel like an idiot Ã¢â¬â but nothing happens at all. Ã¢â¬Å"So I'm a human again Ã¢â¬â as human as Bonnie. And, oh, God, if I could only see her and Meredith right now! But all the time I tell myself that I'm getting closer to Stefan every minute. That is, if you take into account Damon's running us up and down and everywhere to throw off anybody trying to track us down. Ã¢â¬Å"Why would anyone want to track us down? Well, you see, when I came back from the afterlife there was a very big explosion of Power that everyone in the world who can see Power saw. Ã¢â¬Å"Now, how do I explain Power? It's something that everybody has, but that humans Ã¢â¬â except genuine psychics like Bonnie Ã¢â¬â don't even recognize. Vampires definitely have Power, and they use it to Influence humans to like them, or to think that things are different from reality Ã¢â¬â oh, like the way Stefan Influenced the high school staff to think his records were all in order when he Ã¢â¬Ëtransferred' to Robert E. Lee High School. Or they use Power to blast other vampires or creatures of darkness Ã¢â¬â or humans. Ã¢â¬Å"But I was talking about the burst of Power when I dropped down from the heavens. It was so big that it attracted two horrible creatures from the other side of the world. And then they decided to come see what had made the burst, and if there was any way they could use it for themselves. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not joking, either, about them being from the other side of the world. They were kitsune, evil fox spirits from Japan. They're something like our Western werewolves Ã¢â¬â but much more powerful. So powerful that they used malach, which are really plants but look like insects that can be no bigger than a pinhead or big enough to swallow your arm. And the malach attach themselves to your nerves and feather out along your entire nervous system and finally they take you over from inside.Ã¢â¬ Now Elena was shuddering, and her voice was hushed. Ã¢â¬Å"That's what happened to Damon. A tiny one got into him and it took him over from inside so that he was only a puppet of Shinichi's. I forgot to say, the kitsune are called Shinichi and Misao. Misao is the girl. They both have black hair with red all around the tips, but Misao's is long. And they're supposed to be brother and sister Ã¢â¬â but they sure don't act like it. Ã¢â¬Å"And once Damon was fully possessed, that's when Shinichi made Damon's bodyÃ¢â¬ ¦do terrible things. He made him torture Matt and me, and even now I know that sometimes Matt still wants to kill Damon for it. But if he'd seen what I saw Ã¢â¬â a whole thin, wet, white second body that I had to pull out with my fingernails from Damon's spine Ã¢â¬â with Damon finally passing out from the pain Ã¢â¬â then Matt would understand better. I can't blame Damon for what Shinichi made him do. I can't. Damon wasÃ¢â¬ ¦you can't imagine how different. He was crushed. He cried. He wasÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"Anyway, I don't expect to ever see him like that again. But if I ever get my Wings' powers back, Shinichi is in big trouble. Ã¢â¬Å"I think that that was our mistake last time, you see. We finally were able to fight Shinichi and Misao Ã¢â¬â and we didn't kill them. We were too moral or too gentle or something. Ã¢â¬Å"It was a bad mistake. Ã¢â¬Å"Because Damon wasn't the only one who got possessed by Shinichi's malach. There were girls, young girls, fourteen and fifteen and younger. And some boys. ActingÃ¢â¬ ¦crazy. Hurting themselves and their families. We didn't know how badly until after we'd already made a bargain with Shinichi. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe we were too immoral, making a bargain with the devil. But they had kidnapped Stefan Ã¢â¬â and Damon, who was already possessed by then, had helped them. Once Damon was unpossessed, all he wanted was for Shinichi and Misao to tell us where Stefan was, and then for them to leave Fell's Church forever. Ã¢â¬Å"In exchange for that, Damon let Shinichi into his mind. Ã¢â¬Å"If vampires are obsessed with Power, kitsune are obsessed with memories. And Shinichi wanted Damon's memories for the last few days Ã¢â¬â the time that Damon was possessed and torturing usÃ¢â¬ ¦and the time when my Wings made Damon realize that he had done it. I don't think Damon himself wanted those memories, either of what he'd done or of how he'd changed when he had to face that he'd done it. So he let Shinichi take them, in exchange for Shinichi putting Stefan's location into his mind. Ã¢â¬Å"The problem is that we were trusting Shinichi's word that he would leave then Ã¢â¬â when Shinichi's word meant nothing at all. Ã¢â¬Å"Plus, ever since then he's been using the telepathic channel that he opened between his mind and Damon's to take more and more of Damon's memories without Damon even knowing. Ã¢â¬Å"It happened just last night, when we were pulled over by a policeman who wanted to know what three teenagers in an expensive car were doing that late at night. Damon Influenced him to go away. But just a few hours later Damon had forgotten the policeman completely. Ã¢â¬Å"It frightens Damon. And anything that frightens Damon Ã¢â¬â not that he would ever admit it Ã¢â¬â scares me to death. Ã¢â¬Å"And, you might ask, what were three teenagers doing out in the middle of nowhere, in Union County, Tennessee, according to the last road sign I saw? We're heading toward some Gate to the Dark DimensionÃ¢â¬ ¦where Shinichi and Misao left Stefan in the prison called the Shi no Shi. Shinichi only put the knowledge into Damon's mind, and I can't get Damon to say much about what kind of place it is. But Stefan is there and I'll get to him somehow, even if it kills me. Ã¢â¬Å"Even if I have to learn how to kill. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not the sweet little girl from Virginia I used to be.Ã¢â¬ Elena stopped and blew out her breath. But then, cuddling herself, she went on. Ã¢â¬Å"And why is Matt along with us? Well, because of Caroline Forbes, my friend since kindergarten. Last yearÃ¢â¬ ¦when Stefan came to Fell's Church, she and I both wanted him. But Stefan didn't want Caroline. And after that she turned into my worst enemy. Ã¢â¬Å"Caroline was also the lucky winner of Shinichi's first visit to any girl in Fell's Church. But more to the point: she was Tyler Smallwood's girlfriend quite a while before she was his victim. I wonder how long they were together and where Tyler is now. All I know is that, in the end, Caroline hung on to Shinichi because she Ã¢â¬Ëneeded a husband.' That was how she put it herself. So I assume Ã¢â¬â well, what Damon assumes. That she's going toÃ¢â¬ ¦have puppies. A werewolf litter, you know? Since Tyler is a werewolf. Ã¢â¬Å"Damon says that having a werewolf baby turns you into a werewolf even faster than if you're bitten, and that at some point in the pregnancy you gain the power to be all wolf or all human, but before that point you're just a mixed-up mess. Ã¢â¬Å"The sad thing is that Shinichi scarcely gave Caroline a second glance when she blurted it all out. Ã¢â¬Å"But before that Caroline had been desperate enough to accuse Matt of Ã¢â¬â of assaulting her Ã¢â¬â on a date that went wrong. She had to have known something about what Shinichi was doing because she claimed her Ã¢â¬Ëdate' with Matt was at a time when one of the arm-swallowing mallach was attacking him, making marks on his arm that looked like a girl's fingernail scratches. Ã¢â¬Å"That sent the police after Matt, all right. So basically I just made him come with us. Caroline's father is one of the most important people in Fell's Church Ã¢â¬â and he's friends with the district attorney in Ridgemont and the leader of one of those men's clubs where they have secret handshakes and other stuff that makes you, you know, Ã¢â¬Ëprominent in the community.' Ã¢â¬Å"If I hadn't convinced Matt to run instead of facing Caroline's charges, the Forbeses would have lynched him. And I feel the anger like a fire inside me Ã¢â¬â not just anger and hurt for Matt, but anger and the feeling that Caroline has let all girls everywhere down. Because most girls aren't pathological liars, and wouldn't say something like that about a boy falsely. She's shamed all girls by doing what she did.Ã¢â¬ Elena paused, looking at her hands, and then added, Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes when I get angry at Caroline, cups shake or pencils roll right off the table. Damon says all this is caused by my aura, my life force, and that ever since I came back from the afterlife it's been different. First of all, it makes anyone who drinks my blood incredibly strong. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan was strong enough that the fox demons could never have forced him into their trap if Damon hadn't tricked him in the beginning. They could only deal with him when he was weakened and surrounded by iron. Iron is bad news for any eldritch creature, plus vampires need to feed at least once a day or they get weak, and I'll bet Ã¢â¬â no, I'm sure that they used that against him. Ã¢â¬Å"That's why I can't stand to think about what shape Stefan might be in right this minute. But I can't let myself get too afraid or angry or I'll lose control of my aura. Damon showed me how to keep my aura mostly inside, like a normal human girl. It's still pale gold and pretty, but not a beacon for creatures like vampires. Ã¢â¬Å"Because there's one other thing my blood Ã¢â¬â maybe even just my aura Ã¢â¬â can do. It canÃ¢â¬ ¦oh, well, I can say anything I want to here, right? Nowadays, my aura can make vampires want meÃ¢â¬ ¦the way human guys do. Not just to bite, get it? But to kiss and all the rest. And so, naturally, they come after me if they sense it. It's as if the world is full of honeybees and I'm the only flower. Ã¢â¬Å"So I have to practice keeping my aura hidden. If it's just barely showing, then I can get away with seeming like a normal human, not somebody who's died and come back. But it's hard to always remember to hide it Ã¢â¬â and it hurts a lot pulling it in suddenly if I've forgotten! Ã¢â¬Å"And then I feel Ã¢â¬â this is absolutely private, all right? I'm putting a curse on you, Damon, if you replay this. But it's then that I feel like I want Stefan to bite me. It eases up the pressure, and that's good. Being bitten by a vampire only hurts if you fight it, or if the vampire wants it to hurt. Otherwise, it can just feel good Ã¢â¬â and then you touch the mind of the vampire who's done it, andÃ¢â¬ ¦oh, I just miss Stefan so much!Ã¢â¬ Elena was shaking now. As hard as she tried to quiet her imagination, she kept thinking about the things that Stefan's jailers might be doing to him. Grimly, she gripped her mobile again, letting tears fall on it. Ã¢â¬Å"I can't let myself think of what they might do to him because then I really start to go crazy. I become this useless shaking insane person who just wants to scream and scream and never stop. I have to fight every second not to think about it. Because only a cool, calm Elena with a Plan A and B and C is going to help him. When I have him safe in my arms, I can let myself shake and cry Ã¢â¬â and scream, too.Ã¢â¬ Elena stopped, half laughing, her head bent against the passenger's seatback, her voice husky with overuse. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm tired now. But I have a Plan A, at least. I need to get more information from Damon about the place we're going, the Dark Dimension, and anything he knows about the two clues Misao gave me about the key that will unlock Stefan's cell. Ã¢â¬Å"I guessÃ¢â¬ ¦I guess I haven't mentioned that at all. The key, the fox key, that we need to get Stefan out of his cell, is broken into two pieces that are hidden in two different places. And when Misao was taunting me about how little I knew about those places, she gave me flat-out clues about where they were. She never dreamed I'd actually go into the Dark Dimension; she was just showing off. But I still remember the clues, and they went like this: The first half is Ã¢â¬Ëin the silver nightingale's instrument.' And the second half is Ã¢â¬Ëburied in Bloddeuwedd's ballroom.' Ã¢â¬Å"I need to see if Damon has any ideas about these. Because it sounds as if once we get to the Dark Dimension we're going to have to infiltrate some people's houses and other places. To search a ballroom, it's best to somehow get invited to the ball, right? That sounds like Ã¢â¬Ëeasier said than done,' but whatever it takes, I'll do. It's simple as that.Ã¢â¬ Elena lifted her head in determination and went still, then said in a whisper, Ã¢â¬Å"Would you believe it? I looked up just now and I can see the palest streaks of dawn in the sky: light green and creamy orange and the faintest aquaÃ¢â¬ ¦. I've talked all through the darkness. It's so peaceful now. Just now the sun peeked up o Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"What the hell was that? Something just went BANG on the top of the Jag. Really, really loud.Ã¢â¬ Elena clicked off the recorder on her mobile. She was scared, but a noise like that Ã¢â¬â and now scrabbling sounds on the roofÃ¢â¬ ¦ She had to get out of the car as fast as possible.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Fray Luis De LeonÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the good shepherd motif in At the Ascension (Wilkie & Hurt, 2001) is a wholly unexpected one.Ã Hearing the phrase or title Ã¢â¬Ëthe good shepherdÃ¢â¬â¢ clearly fills one with expectation that the word good in it means good of action.Ã In other words, a reader encountering this phrase would assume that the shepherd is good because of the work that he does.Ã For example, a shepherd who carefully rounds up his sheep would be a good shepherd, while one who loses his sheep would be a bad shepherd. This is in opposition to Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ referring to a quality of character.Ã In this fashion, good is a description of what a person is, not what a person does.Ã This is apart from action. Ã It is this latter understanding that is what De Leon leaves us with.Ã He writes Ã¢â¬Å"Holy Shepherd, dost thou leave thy flock in this valley profound and obscure, to dwell with solitude and grieve, while piercing through the heavens pure, thou risest to immortality secure?Ã¢â¬ (p. 2217).Ã This is certainly not the typical use of the metaphor in religious literature. For a more conventional, religious interpretation of the shepherd, consider this oft quoted poem from Lope de Vega entitled The Good Shepherd (Walsh, 1920).Ã In it he writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Shepherd! Who with thine amorous sylvan song, hast broken the slumber that encompassed me, who madÃ¢â¬â¢st thy crook from the accursed tree, on which thy powerful arms were stretched so long!Ã Lead me to mercyÃ¢â¬â¢s ever-flowing fountains; for thou my shepherd, guard and guide shall be.Ã¢â¬ This image from de Vega is in complete opposition to the use of the form by de Leon.Ã It represents, again, a more typical usage of shepherd in a religious context, and is used to demonstrate unconditional, usually sacrificial love for others, as in de Vega.Ã De Leon, though, turns that motif around, blaming the shepherd for not being all the things that our expectations demand. St. John of the Cross, in his poem I Entered Where I Did Not Know would seem, at least at first glance/first read, to be a substantial paradox.Ã Certainly to the secular reader, it must be such.Ã It is a poem that explores such seemingly contradictory thoughts such as, Ã¢â¬Å"Unknowing where I was, I learned unheard of things, but what I heard I cannot say, for I remained unknowing, all reason now transcendedÃ¢â¬ (Wilkie & Hurt, 2001, p. 2220). Ã Using the words Ã¢â¬ËlearnedÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËunknowingÃ¢â¬â¢ in the same few lines does not just transcend reason, but transcends every expectation but contradiction.Ã This, as I stated, though, is the view of the secular reader.Ã The paradox is unraveled and the mystery revealed when read through the lens of the religious observer who is accustomed to this type of usage of the limitations of humanity.Ã St. John clearly is talking of two realms here, the physical (mortal) and the spiritual (eternal).Ã Knowledge that the self possesses, he is intimating through this poem, is only the knowledge of the physical world that we have.Ã In that area of understanding, we have our version of knowledge Ã¢â¬â what he calls Ã¢â¬ËknowingÃ¢â¬â¢. However, when attempting to grasp the reality of the spiritual world, our knowledge that we possess about the physical world is absolutely useless to us.Ã Our very own reason (i.e. our mind) cannot even begin to understand what it sees of the spirit world.Ã It remains outside of our comprehension, and our ability to gain knowledge of.Ã Even when we stand in its presence, we are left unknowing. Lupercio Leonardo de ArgensolaÃ¢â¬â¢s poem beginning, Ã¢â¬Å"First I must confess, Don Juan,Ã¢â¬ is most certainly a serious, though clever, observation about appearance and truth.Ã It reads in a whimsical sort of fashion, and is almost too witty for its own good.Ã Because of its non subtle imagination, and condescending language, the poem is often misunderstood.Ã The reader is apt to rush to judgment.Ã Far from being just a playful conceit, however, it contains much deeper meaning. Lines such as, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Dona ElviraÃ¢â¬â¢s pink and white, if truly seen, owe to her no more than what they cost to buy,Ã¢â¬ (Wilkie & Hurt, 2001, p. 2239) indicate such a lack of value of internal beauty (and perhaps external beauty, for that matter) within Dona Elvira that the reader almost must laugh at the pointed jest.Ã But this is serious.Ã Considering how Argensola treats this appearance of the lady, this is plain to see.Ã He attributes her with Ã¢â¬Ëfalse beautyÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdeceitÃ¢â¬â¢, and then goes on to explain that he is swayed by it.Ã It is clear that he finds this trait of hers to be contrary to truth and is merely appearance. If the poet did not find these issues to be important, then he would have just stated the appearance of the deceit, and been done with it.Ã Since he adds commentary, however, by going on to talk about its influence on him (and presumably all men), a serious tone is affected.Ã It is similar, then, to CampionÃ¢â¬â¢s Amaryllis in I Care Not for These Ladies (Campion).Ã Campion declares of the country maid that her natural beauty disdains art and that her beauty is actually her own.Ã In other words, this is the same question that Argensola raises, the same test he puts to the woman in his poem.Ã Does she have internal beauty, that of truth without falsehood? This is the true beauty of internal integrity.Ã Or is she just a painted lady, who practices deceit with her very face?Ã These are serious questions about not only appearance, but also of truth, and both Argensola and Campion express the same judgment in the end.Ã These are not mere plays on words, but deeper exercises into human behavior. Sor JuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s verses regarding menÃ¢â¬â¢s choices and their consequences shows her craft at its very best (Wilkie & Hurt, 2001).Ã As has been noted, it is the choice of her weapon Ã¢â¬â reason Ã¢â¬â that made her and still makes her one of the top anti-misogynists of all time.Ã Her lack of flowery wording and coy assumptions and directions lend to the power of her poems. She remains fully a poet, while also assuming a full role of sociologist.Ã Had she been purely focused on the direct attack, a non-rational set of accusations, her legacy would have been much different.Ã She knew and understood that the direct attack through poetry or other works of literature have been long derided as pure emotionalism, a weakness men attribute to women.Ã Therefore, Sor Juana did turn to logic and rationale.Ã Ironically, these have long been promoted by men to be menÃ¢â¬â¢s tools. Her use of paradoxes to dismiss menÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of women is astounding and successful.Ã Her words are sharp.Ã She raises issues in a back and forth style, point for point, in which paradoxes are found, such as men stating that they will batter a woman down emotionally, but be upset when they show emotions. Or courting a woman and then declaring her to be open and lewd when she accepts.Ã These paradoxes are enough for anyone Ã¢â¬â feminist or non feminist Ã¢â¬â to be able to understand that, as Sor Juana would say, Ã¢â¬Å"For plain default of common sense, could any action be so queer as oneself to cloud the mirror, then complain that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not clear?Ã¢â¬ (p. 2263). Machiavellian behavior is that of cunning and duplicity.Ã This type of overt behavior is easily found in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s The Tempest (Wilkie & Hurt, 2001).Ã However, it is a tempered, double edged sword.Ã It is too easy, nearly tempting, to assign pro- and anti-Machiavellian behavior within the play specifically to separate characters. What is intriguing is the argument for and against within the same character.Ã Consider Prospero.Ã He is full of cunning and guile.Ã While outwardly extending a hand of friendship as Prince, he acts to destroy behind the scenes simultaneously.Ã He takes advantage of his mystical powers to control the situation from well beyond the reach of others.Ã In those ways, he is an easy to find villain.Ã Particularly, his sheer cunning and duplicitous grabs at power can be expressed as being Machiavellian. But what of the other side of things?Ã Is there a different aspect by which Prospero can be observed?Ã Is he to be excused?Ã And if so, donÃ¢â¬â¢t we have to dismiss the Machiavellian notion? It is true that the play opens with his exile.Ã It appears true that his exile was a wrong done to him by Alonso.Ã Therefore all of his actions and behaviors through the play could be seen as rightful revenge.Ã And if this is true, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t his character be forgiven, and his motivations just?Ã Finally, in this way, would not Prospero be seen, himself, as actually anti-Machiavellian because he is driven by rightful justice?Ã This is the interesting question.Ã It begs us to look deeper into characters before blindly agreeing with popular literary criticism. References Campion, T. I Care Not For These Ladies. Poetry Foundation. Retrieved May 27, 2010 < http://www.poetryfoundation.org/archive/poem.html?id=181014> Walsh, T. (Ed.). (1920). Hispanic Anthology: Poems Translated from the Spanish by English and North American Poets. New York: G.P. PutnamÃ¢â¬â¢s Sons. Wilkie, B., & Hurt, J. (Ed.). (2001). Literature of the Western World vol.1: The Ancient World Through the Renaissance, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
ANALYZE OF CRIMSON TIDE In this assignment I will analyze the Ã¢â¬Å"Crimson TideÃ¢â¬ based on OB topics which are organization, skills, personality, perception, values, and attitudes. First of all I would like to say something briefly about the movie. On a US nuclear missile sub, a young first officer stages a mutiny to prevent his trigger happy captain from launching his missiles before confirming his orders to do so. An organization is basically consciously coordinated social unit. There are three essentials to be an organization, -group of people -continuous or else project -common goal When we look at the Crimson Tide we can see the all three features in that submarine. First of all they are group of soldier in a nuclear submarine. Secondly, this group of people are not together but they came together to a project that U.S. Navy nuclear submarine, USS Alabama, to be available to launch its missiles in a preemptive strike if Radchenko attempts to fuel his missiles. It is enough to be an organization for a group. Thirdly, even though they use different ways, they have a common goal which is protecting their country. Most distinct skill of Captain Ramsey his experience and loyalty to the Navy. He never questions to orders. He thinks he is there to apply to the orders, sometimes impatiently, and make sure his crewÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty to apply order. He does not believe to democracy in the submarine. For example he says Ã¢â¬Å"we are here to preserve democracy, not to practice it. Ron Hunter is a young, inexperience, and good educated man. He finished Harvard University. He is highly educated in military history and technical tactics. Hunter is more analytic and conservative towards his mission. Hunter is against the missile launch and tries to win over support from Ramsey to confirm the second message before proceeding with the launch, because he has hope that it was possibly an abjuration of the previous command. This behavior shows his humanist and rational side. Hunter plays a number of roles. He makes sure that Captain Ramsey makes the correct choices. For example, he is waiting the rest of the message to launch of theÃ nuclear missiles. Also he motivates his crew. Ramsey is a strict and arrogant leader who never motivates his crew, but with the influence from Hunter, Ramsey gives a motivational speech after the crew to restore all operations after the Russian attack. I will focus on RamseyÃ¢â¬â¢s and HunterÃ¢â¬â¢s personality, perception, values and attitudes in this part of my assignment; The Big Five Personality Model: high extraversion: overconfident, pushy low agreeableness: cold, dissident high conscientiousness: organized, stubborn high emotional stability: self-confident, calm high openness to experience: curious Attributes: Machiavellianism: practical, manipulate Self-esteem: likes himself Risk-taking: risk-taking by shooting the missiles More Type A: multitasks Less Type B: can relax without guilty (after downgrading sitting in his cabin and being calm) External locus of control: controlled by outside forces (government) Perception: Perceiver: Captain Frank Ramsey Target: Russians, Hunter Situation: SubmarineÃ¢â¬ ¦wants to attack Russia Errors: Halo effect: general impression by a single characteristic. Stereotyping: Harvard students are nerds and hunter is one of them without experience Values: He belongs elders generation. This generationÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics are discipline, authority, traditional HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s Framework: High power distance: Captain as a authority High Individualism : Focus on his opinion High Masculinity: DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care so much about people (e.g. fire-alarm) High Uncertainty avoidance: He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like uncertainty. Wants to act quickly. For example he wants to shoot missiles Low long-term orientation: DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care about nuclear warÃ¢â¬ ¦.he wants to act now High Indulgence: Submarine/Job is his second home comfortable cabin and his dog Attitudes: Job satisfaction: work place is like his homeÃ¢â¬ ¦.(e.g. dog) Neglect: when hunter took his authority he went to his cabin and was listening to the music like nothing happened before Affective: emotional relationship to the navy. Traditional beliefs Engagement: His speech to the soldiers at the beginning of the film. HunterÃ¢â¬â¢s; Personality: The Big Five Personality Model: high extraversion: assertive, gregarious, sociable high agreeableness: cooperative, trusting, empathetic high conscientiousness: organized, persistent high emotional stability: self-confident, calm high openness to experience: flexible, curious Attributes: Machiavellianism: practical, manipulate Self-esteem: ambitious goals related to his career Self-monitoring: attention to external environment by building a relationship to the marines Risk-taking: risk-taking by downgrading Ramsey Proactive: identifies opportunities and tries to prevent nuclear war More internal locus of control: controls his destiny, independent, makes his own decisions Perception: Perceiver: Lieutenant Commander Ron Hunter Target : Ramsey Situation: SubmarineÃ¢â¬ ¦.wants to stop Ramsey and also nuclear war Values: He belongs Baby Boomers Generation and Its features are social recognition, responsibility HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s Framework: Middle power distance: He sees captain as an authority but he is not afraid of sending Ramsey in to jail. He also makes jokes with crew members Middle Individualism : Focus on his opinion but also take care about others opinion Low Masculinity: Takes care of people and feeling (e.g. over weight of a crew member ) Low Uncertainty avoidance: Takes the risk of not knowing what happens next. DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to shoot missiles High long-term orientation: Afraid of nuclear war, stops Ramsey Middle Indulgence: Separates work and family. Has his family who is waiting for him but also he left the birthday of his daughter because of his job Attitudes: Job satisfaction : He is proud of to be a lieutenant Continuance: Wants to make career upgrade to a captain Engagement: Build a good relationship with the crews
Friday, September 27, 2019
Managing a global and diverse workforce - Essay Example Organizations have realized the significance of diversity management as the focus has shifted from earning revenue to enhancing employee satisfaction. In essence, globalization is one of the key contributors to the establishment of workplace diversities making it essential for a human resource manager to build a culturally tolerant environment. The core practice of incorporating this management concept is ensuring that managers utilize all the tools and resources at their disposal in order for the process to be successful. With this, this essay will delve into the compliance-based model of enforcing workplace diversity practice used in the USA in relation to hiring and assigning employees. History of the compliance-based model in the US Initially, the concept of applying workplace diversity began through the introduction of affirmative action as a provision of the law in which human resource professionals had to give equal opportunities to job seekers (Kandola & Fullerton 2003, p. 4) . As per the law, employers cannot use racial, ethnic affiliation, or gender as the basis to offering employment or as a tool for filling out the diversity gaps that may exist within an organization. The process began as a voluntary aspect in which those that desired to apply it could, but it later evolved to be a mandatory practice because of the increase in cases of substandard treatment by employers. In essence, for those that could not comply with the developed legal structures that aimed at enforcing equality at the workplace became subject able to legal penalties. By the mid twentieth century, the quest to achieve workplace diversity had begun in Europe and USA where those that sought employment opportunities in these regions could not experience discrimination (Ozbilgin 2004). The Civil Rights legislation of 1964 and the Directive 2000/78/EC are some of the laws developed in order to protect job seekers from discrimination. Both of these laws safeguard the employees against p rejudicial treatment at the work place because of their religion, gender, sexual preference, personal experience and their ethnic background. Racism as a workplace issue For many years, racism has been a predominant workplace issue that has attracted civil lawsuits because human resource professionals have failed to eradicate out of their organizations. Kumra and Manfredi (2012, p. 101) suggest that the significant fraction of the population that has continued to experience workplace discrimination is the African American population. They argue that blacks experience Ã¢â¬Ëeveryday racismÃ¢â¬â¢ at their places of work as compared to any other immigrant population hence making some companies to advocate for institutional racism. Britain is one of the super economies that have minimal regard for people from the black and the ethnic minority groups in relation to positions of power, education, and employment. Further, the percentage of the unemployed from the BME groups stands at 8. 5% because the percentage managers from this community tend to be minimal. The implication of this is that the high percentage registered in the unemployed population is because of having fewer managers at the management levels that can ensure that there is diversity and equality in their places of work (Gold 2009, p. 56). However, this challenge takes from the fact that a significant
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Personal Resourcing and Develoment - Essay Example This approach came to be referred to as the Garbage Can Model (Ahuja, 2007). March earned his BA degree from Wisconsin University. Later, he enrolled in Yale University, where he earned Masters in Arts degree, followed by a Ph.D. The academic work scope covered by James March is relatively broad. However, understanding the process of decision-making in companies, organizations, society and individuals is considered as one of his major focus. In this area, March has made an exploration of the factors that affect the processes of making decisions, including leadership, politics, orientation of risks, stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s vested interests, challenges pertaining to delivering and heeding to advice and impediments to processes of exploring and exploiting the opportunities by the organizations. Aside from beings a researcher, James March also served as teacher and leader of universities. As a matter of fact, James March is known for having served as a professor to prominent scholars, such as Jack Parker, whom he taught at the Stanford University. James march is widely celebrated for his research work on organization and organization decision-making processes (James, 1957). He received several awards for research and teaching. As a way of communication and interaction with society, James March has featured in various books, interactive seminars, articles, poetry and films. James March served as faculty member at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, as well as University of California, since 1953. Since 1970s, James March served at Stanford University. He has ever been elected to serve the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, National Academy of Sciences and even the National Science Board. As if not enough, he has served as a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences Sweden, and Academy of Science and Letters, Norway (Huff, 2000). He has
Discussion Question 2 Week 5 Chapter 8 - Assignment Example Therefore, employers who have a high turnover rate usually incur severe looses as compared to those who have low turnovers in the same industry. In most cases, high turnover rates are influenced by low compensation rates and pitiable work conditions. This asserts that if a company has a low turnover rate, the employees are fully satisfied with the working conditions in the company. Turnover can either be voluntarily or involuntarily (Mondy, 2011). Therefore, as a human resource manager, I can reduce involuntary turnover rate by examining the compensation provided to employees. This includes wages and some of the benefits offered to employees. In addition, I can also create a system which recognizes the hard working employees in the firm in order to enhance the performance of the organization. Moreover, I can also suggest that the organization should hold regular meetings regarding the general performance of the company. This will enable the company to achieve its objectives (Mondy, 2011). Employee motivation is described as the creativity which is applied by employees in their respective job specialization. In most organizations, employee motivation is viewed as one of the most efficient methods, which ensures that the performance of the employees and the company is maintained. Most organizations incorporate employee reward programs. These programs do not involve the wages and benefits of the employee. For example, the human resource manager can award credential points to employees who exceed their goals in their department. These programs significantly promote productivity in the organization. Furthermore, the company can also provide incentives for employees who complete their tasks without delays and correctly. This will ensure that the rate of absentees and labor turnover in the organization is decreased significantly (Mondy,
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Evaluating Performance through Motivation and Conflict Management Discussion - Essay Example Let me first discuss about the theories of motivation applied to organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors and to employees of workplaces. Motivation is etymologically a Latin word "movere"-- to move. It is an internal drive motivating behaviors and determining direction. It is a moving force that motivates organizational behavior. Maslow's Ã¢â¬Å"Hierarchy of Needs TheoryÃ¢â¬ point that motivation is driven by needs and of certain conditions that motivate them to exemplify these needs. This hierarchy features five major areas which start with Ã¢â¬Å"basic needs toward more complicated and self-fulfilling needs. It includes physiological, survival, security and stability. Human beingÃ¢â¬â¢s social nature needs venue for social interaction to bolster our self-esteem and competence in order for us to develop our full potential for self-actualization. Maslow's believes that unsatisfied lowest-level need has the greatest motivating potential. Alderfer's ERG Theory is also somewhat similar to "Needs TheoryÃ¢â¬ but has only three characters which explains satisfaction and motivation.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Inspired a shared vision - Essay Example I also had to have adequate facts to deliver the vision that included research details and real-life examples. These facts are the ones that led to the embracing of the vision with almost all the members present expressing interest in the vision and verbalizing their support. Previously, the outgoing leader of the organization inspired me to a shared vision. The vision to engage in the current tendering processes of the organization was developed by this leader who approached me and enlightened me on the importance of engaging in business opportunities with the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s savings. It is from this experience that I witnessed the importance of using facts and examples to influence a shared vision. Having the vision that is in line with the general organizational goal of taking advantage of the business opportunities. Inspiring a shared vision is not easy. Leaders have a responsibility to lead the organization and its members to greater heights following their objectives. This forward movement calls for visionary leadership that entails having a vision and sharing it with the others. It is only when it is shared that the vision becomes a
Monday, September 23, 2019
Fashion in 20th century - Essay Example The government controlled the amount of fabric that a manufacturer could buy and put to use on a garment. The high limitations and rationing of raw materials meant there were no visible class indicators on the clothing styles especially for women. Dressing style for all women during the war was similar, drawing another relational aspect with women who served during the war. Women in war service had to adopt the trousers as an extreme and practical necessity, which also found its way into the streets. Nevertheless, the largest driving factor of the fashion changes that were evident during and after the war came from the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s stance on rationing. Rationing by the government did not target the fashion industry alone but was meant to increase the raw materials for manufacturing of military regalia. This meant that metals used in corsets, zippers, fasteners were no longer available and would be allocated for military purposes (Mason, 2011). The rationing of materials by the government opened doors for innovation in the areas concerning garment industry. The first real change in the fashion world during World War II came about after the restriction on the fiber fabric to be used in single clothing. Stanly Marcus, who was the head of textiles at the war production board, instituted this mandate. The silhouette was much affected by these changes, as it required quite a large amount of fabric to manufacture (Green, 2012). This meant that the silhouette production would come to a close so as to preserve the fabric for the war purposes. The rules instituted by Marcus came with a limitation order on each garment for which breaking the order meant a jail time or a fine of a particular amount. Army clothing manufacturers used green and brown dye on the clothing, which left civilian manufacturers the option of using red dye. The streets would then be covered in red clothing apart for the army
Sunday, September 22, 2019
The Impact of Pre-Cooling as an Intervention Strategy to Minimize Cardiovascular system Essay Example for Free
The Impact of Pre-Cooling as an Intervention Strategy to Minimize Cardiovascular system Essay The aim of this report was to investigate whether the utilization of pre-cooling (cooling vest) prior to a 10, 000m road-race run within a hot and humid environment, would result in improved performance. The report also aimed to examine any performance-related effects, and their underlying physiological mechanisms. Fourteen (n=14) well-trained adult runners participated in two 10,000m-time trials, spaced 72 hours apart. Ambient conditions of both the control and experimental conditions were T= 32.5 Ã °C, rel. humidity= 65% and T= 32.8Ã¢â¬â¢C, rel. humidity= 63% respectively. Procedure consisted of a 30 minute warm up (20 minutes steady state running at RPE 13, 10 minutes individualized stretching activity). During the warm up, the control condition required participants to wear a normal tee shirt, with the experimental condition requiring participants to wear a commercially available gel-based cooling vest. Conclusion of the 30 min warm up saw the tee shirt or ice- vest replaced with the race singlet, before commencing the 10, 000 m time trial. Time, pre and post body mass, heart rate, skin temperature and core temperature were all variables measured and recorded. Participants were able to complete the 10,000m road-run in less time following the pre-cooling condition, suggesting that pre-cooling as an intervention strategy improved endurance performance. Results indicate this occurrence was due to significantly lower starting core and skin temperatures, reduced starting heart rate as well as an overall lower sweat rate. These factors allowed for a greater capacity of heat storage, minimizing thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain and therefore allowing the body to operate at a higher level of performance before reaching critical limiting temperature. Results Figure 1 displays the difference between time trials obtained in both the control and pre-cooling conditions. The pre-cool time trial was significantly shorter than the control time trial (p0.05). The difference between baseline and post body mass (BM) were recorded to calculate sweat rate (L/hr.). Figure 2 displays the difference in sweat rate between the control and pre-cool conditions. Control sweat rate was significantly higher then sweat rate recorded for the pre-cool condition. The above graph (Figure 3) depicts the mean heart rates and standard deviations for both control and pre-cool conditions. HR was recorded and displayed over three phases of the time trial (start, mid and end). Statistical analysis determined that there was a significant difference in HR between the three phases of the time trial (p0.05). Statistical significance also occurred between control start HR and pre-cool start HR, with control start HR 5.10% greater than pre-cool start HR. Skin temperature was also recorded and statistically analysed. Figure 4 displays the mean and standard deviations for skin temperature (Tsk) over three phases of the time trial for both the control and pre-cool conditions. Significant differences between both control and pre-cool conditions were found (p0.05). Significant statistical differences were also discovered between each of the phases of the time trial (p0.0167). Figure 5 depicts mean and standard deviations for core temperature (Tc). Significant statistical difference occurred between the three different stages of the time trial (p0.05). When compared separately, significant differences were found between all stages of the time trial (start vs. mid, start vs. end, mid vs. end) (p0.0167). Discussion The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-cooling through the utilization of a cooling vest would augment endurance performance undertaken in the heat. Findings obtained from the study indicate that pre-cooling did improve performance, as the pre-cooling condition time trials were significantly shorter than the control condition (p0.05). This ability to perform at a higher intensity, decreasing time taken to complete the 10,000m run can be explained by the physiological mechanisms behind pre-cooling. The ability to exercise under hot and humid conditions is significantly impaired (Nielsen, Hales, Strange, Christensen, Warberg Saltin, 1993) when ambient temperature exceeds skin temperature. Reduced heat loss that would normally occur through convection and radiation, results in an increase in body temperature (Marino Booth, 1998). By lowering pre-performance body temperature, the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to capacitate metabolic heat production is increased (Siegel Laursen, 2012), therefore increasing the time to reach critical limiting temperature, at which exercise performance deteriorates or can no longer be maintained (Marino et al. 1998). Sweat rate was lower following pre-cooling compared to the control condition. A number of studies have also obtained similar results, finding greater heat storage capacities and subsequent sweat rates as a result of precooling (Olschewski Bruck, 1988)(Lee Haymes, 1995)(White, Davis Wilson, 2003). This can be explained by the greater heat storage, that is stimulated by precooling, delaying the onset of heat dissipation and subsequent sweat threshold (White et al. 2003). Furthermore, by minimizing sweat rate, the flow of blood to the skin surface is also reduced. This allows more blood to be distributed to the active muscles, reducing cardiovascular strain (White et al, 2003). Another physiological mechanism stimulated through pre-cooling, that aids in reducing cardiovascular strain is heart rate (HR)(Kay, Taaffe Marino, 1999). Recorded data over both conditions showed an increase in HR from the start to the end of the time trial. However, the only significant difference between control and precooling was found between the starting HR recordings. The precooling start HR was 5.10% lower than the control start HR (p0.0167). This significant difference was not maintained throughout mid and end recordings, with both the control and precooling end HR reaching approximately 191 bpm. Kay et al. (1999) found similar results, with HR slightly reduced following precooling within the first 20 minutes of exercise, however this difference was not maintained at 25 and 30 minutes of exercise. A review of relevant literature by Marino (2002) also indicated a lower HR during the start of exercise that was not seen throughout the rest of the exercise bout. These findings can be explained by greater central blood volume, a result of reduced body temperature and therefore no need to distribute blood flow to skin to lose heat. A greater central blood volume produces an increase in stroke volume, ultimately reducing HR and cardiovascular strain (Marino, 2002). Skin temperature results were also recorded over three phases of the time trial. Similar to HR, a significant difference between control and precooling start skin temperature recordings were found (p0.0167), but diminished throughout the remaining two phases of the time trial. Through the use of precooling and consequent lower skin temperature recordings, blood flow was not required at the skin, centrally withholding blood volume and assisting in reducing cardiac strain (Drust, Cable Reilly, 2000). The final variable assessed in this study was core temperature. According to Neilsen et al. (1993), high core temperature is the most important factor leading to exhaustion and impaired performance during exercise under hot and humid conditions. This may be due to brain and core body temperature having a corresponding relationship. Therefore, an increase in core temperature may result in an increase in brain temperature, resulting in central fatigue and affecting motor performance (Nybo, 2012). Core temperature results showed similarities to the findings for HR and skin temperature. Statistical significant differences were found between each phase that core temperature was recorded (p0.05)(start, mid and end time trial), showing a gradual rise from the start of the time trial to the end. A comparison of means via a T-test between start core temperature (control) and start core temperature (precool) showed a significant difference (p0.0167), which was not seen between samples during m id and end time trial. The findings from this study indicate and present the benefits precooling has on improving endurance performance in hot and humid environments. A number of studies and reviews studying precooling as an intervention strategy (Kay et al. 1993)(Marino, 2002)(Marino et al. 1998) have all shown the positive physiological mechanisms that arise from precooling. Time trials were significantly shorter in time following precooling, showing an improvement in performance. The significantly lower heart rate, skin temperature and core temperature stimulated by precooling at the start of the time trial, all contribute to a greater capacity for metabolic production. This greater capacity provides precooled subjects with the ability to work at a higher intensity for longer, before critical limiting temperature is reached, ultimately improving endurance performance.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
A Competitive Analysis Of Kingfisher Airlines Tourism Essay To research and analyze how kingfisher airlines has retained one of the top position in a highly competitive market like India. To find out what makes them special from all other airlines in India. To find out how kingfisher airlines compete with leading airlines like Air Indian and Jet. To find out what customer tactics they used to bring more customers to the organization. Content summary To approach by doing SWOT and PEST analysis of the company by looking through the magazines and websites available on company. In order to analyze the companys strategy I will be doing 7p analysis. In order to make my objectives a true I will be carrying out an interview with fathers friend who is working in kingfisher airlines. I will be doing a case study on how kingfisher airline is different from and India Airlines. I will be also proposing some new strategies which can help the organization to improve their performance more Table of contents Page Table of Content 34 Objective 2 Content summary 2 Introduction 3 About the Company 5 History 5 Achievements 6 Marketing strategy 7 PESTEL Analysis 8 Political 8 Economical 8 Social 8 Technological 8 Environmental 9 Local 9 7 Ps Analysis 9 Product 9 Promotions 10 Price 10 People 10 Place 10 Physical evidence 11 Process 11 SWOT Analysis 11 Strengths 11 Weakness 12 Opportunities 12 Threats 12 Comparison Kingfisher VS Indian Airlines 1213 Suggestion and recommendation 14 Appendix 14 Questionnaire References 15 Introduction Kingfisher Airlines Limited is a majorÃ IndianÃ airline. Kingfisher operates more than 400 flights a day and has a network of 72 destinations, with regional and long-haul international services. Kingfisher Airlines, through one of its holding companiesÃ United Breweries Group, has a 50 percent stake inÃ low-cost carrierÃ Kingfisher Red, formerly known as Air Deccan. Kingfisher Airlines is one of six airlines in the world to have a five-star rating fromÃ Skytrax, along withÃ Asian Airlines,Ã Malaysia Airlines,Ã Qatar Airways,Ã Singapore AirlinesÃ andÃ Cathay Pacific Airways. In May 2009, Kingfisher Airlines carried more than a million passengers, giving it the highest market share among airlines in India. Kingfisher has its registered office in theÃ UB TowerÃ inÃ BangaloreÃ and its head office in the Kingfisher House inÃ Mumbai. History The airline started operations on 9 May 2005, following theÃ dry leaseÃ of four brand newÃ Airbus A320-200Ã aircraft. Its first flight was from MumbaiÃ toÃ Delhi. At the launch of the airline, Dr. Mallya said that he is committed to achieving our ambition of making Kingfisher Airlines Indias largest private airline both in capacity and market share by 2010. The airline ushered in a new era of luxury in Indias domestic aviation sector with its brand new aircraft with stylish red interiors, and smartly dressed crew and ground staff. Kingfisher was the first Indian airline to haveÃ in-flight entertainmentÃ (IFE) systems on every seat even on domestic flights. All passengers were given a welcome kit consisting goodies such as a pen, facial tissue and headphones to use with the IFE system. Initially, passengers were able to watch only recorded TV programming on the IFE system, but later an alliance was formed withÃ Dish TVÃ to provide live TV in-flight. And in a marked departure from tradition, Kingfisher Airlines decided to have an on-screenÃ safety demonstrationÃ using the IFE system. On 14 July 2008, Kingfisher unveiled its first everÃ Wide-body aircraft, aÃ Airbus A330-200Ã at the 46thÃ Farnborough Air showÃ held in July 2008. Kingfishers first Airbus A330-200 was widely billed as the best A330-200 ever built byÃ Airbus. On 3 September 2008, Kingfisher started its international operations by connectingÃ BangaloreÃ withÃ London. Achievements Kingfisher Airlines has received three global awards at the SKYTRAX World Airline AwardsÃ Named Best Airline In India / Central Asia; Best Cabin Crew Central Asia Kingfisher RED named Best Low Cost Airline in India / Central Asia NDTV Profit Business Leadership Award for AviationÃ awarded to Kingfisher Airlines by NDTV twice in two years Indias only 5 Star airline, rated by SkytraxÃ andÃ 6th airline in the worldÃ to be certified asÃ 5 star airline by Skytrax Ranked amongst Indias Top Service Brands of 2008 ranking by PitchÃ magazine Voted asÃ Indias Favourite Airline in a survey conducted by an independent research firm with 46% votes compared to others Rated as Asia Pacifics Top Airline Brand in a survey conducted by TNS on Asia Pacifics Top 1,000 Brands for 2008 Brand Leadership Award in the service and hospitality segment against several acclaimed hotels, leading banks and other airlines Economic Times Avaya Award 2006 for Excellence inÃ Customer Responsiveness award is presented by the highly acclaimed Business Daily, Economic Times Indias No. 1 Airline in customer satisfaction Business World Rated amongst Indias most respected companies Business World Rated amongst Indias 25 Innovative Companies in aÃ survey conducted by Plan man Media in 2006 The Best Airline and Indias FavouriteÃ Carrier in a Survey conducted by The Times of India Service Excellence 2005-2006 for a New Airline Ã by Skytrax, a UK based specialist global air transport advisor Ranked Third in the survey on Indias Most Successful Brand launch of 2005 Under the Brand Derby Survey conducted by Indias leading business daily Business Standard Busiest Brands of 2005 ranked amongst the Top Ten busiest brands of 2005Ã and 2006 across product categories, in the survey conducted by agency faqs and The Brand Reporter Best New Airline of the Year Award for 2005Ã Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation (CAPA) Award in the Asia-Pacific and Middle East region Marketing strategies Kingfisher Airlines has a clearly defined target audience- SEC A, SEC B+ (socio-economic class) in the age group of 25-45 years of age. Kingfisher Airlines offers brand new aircraft, designer interiors, gourmet cuisine and in flight-entertainment (there are five channels of FUN TV and 10 channels of Kingfisher Radio, which are personalized). Communicate with guests at multiple touch points. They use all media of communication television, print, radio, outdoor, malls, multiplexes, clubs, pubs, in-flight etc. The guests are constantly informed of their new offers. Ã They offer tickets to theatre screenings, fashion shows, sports screenings etc to their frequent travellers (club members). Their Partners Program has been very successful. They have tied up with the best of brands across industries. Tata Tetley, Pepsi, Microsoft, Inox, Kenzo , IFB, Taj, Park Hotels and Oxford book stores have been some of leading partners. PESTEL Analysis Political Foreign airlines are not allowed to buy a stake in domestic airlines. International route regulations Closing down of domestic airports Open sky policy Economical Contribution to the Indian economy Rising cost of fuel Investment in the sector of aviation The growth of the middle income group family affects the aviation sector. Shortage of the infrastructure capacity Social Development of cities leads to better services and airports Employment opportunities Safety regulations The status symbol attached to a plane travel. Technological The growth of e-commerce and e-ticketing Satellite based navigation system Modernisation and privatisation of the airports Developing green filed airports with private sector for example in Bangalore the airport corporation limited. Environmental The increase in global warming The sudden and the unexpected behaviour of the atmosphere and the dependency on whether Shortage of the infrastructural capacity Tourism saturation Legal Bilateral treaties Airlines acquisitions and the leasing cost In the United States, low-cost airlines often operated from small airports that charge lower fees and that did not suffer from the congestion at large airports In India, however, government policy did not allow the creation of airports closer than 150KM from each other, and the old airports at Bangalore and Hyderabad were closed down when the new one started. 7 Ps Product Fleet size Aircrafts International foray Promotions Advertisements Magazines and newspaper ads Exposure at non-corporate events Participation at international airs hows Endorsing celebrities like Katrina Kaif and Deepika padukone Price Dynamic pricing model multiple fare levels Uniform rules No hidden restrictions Pricing models eight different levels Discounts provided from time to time People Backbone of the brand Extensive trainings Hospitality industry and consider their customer as guest Interpersonal skills, aptitude, and service knowledge Place Online booking (official site) Online booking Yatro.com, make my trip.com, ezeego1.com Credit cards and debit cards payment SMS/call Outlets in every major city and at every airport across the country Physical evidence Personal valets Exclusive lounge space Hi! Blitz Gourmet cuisine World class cabin crew Kingfisher radio Process Booking the ticket online booking or telephone booking or from any of the kingfisher outlets and private agencies. SWOT Analysis Strength First airline with full new fleet of aircraft Quality hospitality provided to customers. Route rationalization. Already having training academy. Weaknesses Service delivery to metros and other big cities Yet not in a high profit. High ticket pricing Opportunities Under penetrated domestic market Chances International market Untapped air cargo market Expanding tourism industry Threats Existing operators Infrastructure issue Fuel price hike Economic slowdown Kingfisher VS Indian Airlines Areas Indian airlines Kingfisher Airlines Reservation Ticket can be booked by ringing or visiting the office. As soon as waiting list ticket get confirmed they will call the customers on the given contact number Passengers can make the booking first and purchase the ticket later Ticket can be cancelled over phone or through fax 24hr before the journey By the help of user friendly websites Kingfisher airline office Authorized agents Payment can be made by the debit card, credit card, payment at kingfisher airlines office, credit note Kingfisher airline provides the home delivery of tickets and maintains direct relation with the customers. Fares Special fares offered for army forces, war disabled officers, war widows, blind persons, cancer patients, person suffering from 80% and above locomotive disability. Concessional fare to senior citizens, students etc. Fare apply only for carriage from airport at the point of origin to the airport at the point of destination It has 30 to 40 % lower ticket coast compared to other carrier operating in the country Meals Indicate the personal meal preference at the time of booking to ensure correct meal on board the flight Special meals: provided to passengers Indian vegetarian, western vegetarian, Hindu non- vegetarian, children food items etc. On board Choose from the readymade food Business class and economic class Order what you like freshly made on board Equality in class , no differentiation Low cost On ground More waiting time Satisfactory handling of delays Less waiting time Efficient handling of delays Suggestions and recommendation Reduce labour cost Simplify the flight operations Offer more transparent pricing Get smart on fuel The process of acquiring spice jet if complete would make kingfisher the larget player in the aviation industry Different modes of pricing should be taken care of Needs to change brand perceptions Gain optional efficiencies through alliances as with Jet Airways Fleet size expansion Partnering with Jet Airways and some depending brands. Appendix As part of the report preparation I visited my dads friend who is working in kingfisher and I had an interview with him. I went through many magazines who wrote articles about kingfishers and Dr. Mallyas success. I have talked with some of my friends who got chance to fly in kingfisher. They explained to me the facilities they got and their rating to the flight travel. Questionnaire As a supplier, what major trends have you witnessed in the manner consumers in India buy travel especially air ticket? How would you describe your target audience? How do you assess the current positioning of Kingfisher Airlines? Companies are going about brand activation at multiple consumer touch-points. How are you balancing your offline and online marketing initiatives? How tough is it in the current environment to build connect with consumers? How successful has been your Partners Program, a forum where like-minded brands to Kingfisher Airlines can come on the same platform and achieve respective marketing objectives?
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Function Of Prophecy In Old Testament Theology Religion Essay Prophets have always been surrounded by an aura of mystery. Because they were intermediaries between the human and divine worlds, prophets appeared to their hearers as terrifying yet magnetic and fascinating figures. Throughout the history of Western civilization, whenever these divinely inspired individuals have appeared, attempts have been made to penetrate the mystery that surrounds them. The focus of many of these attempts has been the Old Testament prophets who have traditionally functioned as models for the elucidation of other prophetic phenomenon. How prophets were viewed: Prophets were viewed as channels through which divine messages reached the ordinary world and through which humans could gain direct access to the divine. Therefore, the prophetic intermediaries appeared in any society which believed in the existence of divine powers capable of communicating with human beings.Ã Ã However, within societies and groups, the behaviour of prophets tended to follow traditional, well-defined patterns. This behavior varied from society to society. Within a given society or group, prophetic behavior usually conformed to the expected norms. In the Old Testament we can find that the prophets receive divine messages and translate them into human terms and communicating them, using traditional speech forms and actions. This task indicates that they are functioning as prophets and the message they bring, comes from the divine realm.Ã Ã Isaiah as a prophet: Similarly, Isaiah who is one of the great prophets, exercised his prophetic ministry during the reigns of Uzziah (783-742 BC), Jotham ( 742-735), Ahaz ( 735-715) and Hezekiah (715-687). The vision which is recorded in Chapter 6 was the one which constituted the call of Isaiah to be a prophet. It has sometimes been said that Isaiah must have belonged to the aristocracy of the capital because he knew the ways of the court and had ready access to the presence of the king when he had need. A prophet of the stature of Isaiah must have made himself a well-known member of the Jerusalem community and one whose words were treated with great respect.Ã Ã The book of Isaiah, one of the longer units in the Hebrew Bible, comprises prophetic material in verse and prose collected over a period of at least half a millennium. In the opening chapter of Isaiah we catch echoes of Amos here and there, not least in the contrast between the sacrificial cult and the demands of social justice ( Isa. 1:12-17) which would fit better the early stage of Isaiahs career. There is also reminiscent of Amos in his condemnation of the ruling classes who grind the face of the poor (Isa. 3:15) and reflects a lack of concern for traditional moral values of the women of Jerusalem ( Isa. 3:16-17,24-26; cf. The poem on divine judgment (Isa. 2:6-22) restates for the befit of Judah the central message of Amos : that the God of Israel has now abandoned his people and left them at the mercy of history.Ã Ã And Isaiah was taking up where Amos left. He is more explicit than Amos in his reference to the Assyrians and the role they were destined to play in Israels future ( Isa. 5:26-30). Social, cultural and political situation during the time of Isaiah: Before the time of Omri and Ahab, kings of Israel about a century before Isaiah received his call to be a prophet, the history of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah after the death of Solomon had been an unimpressive record of petty squabbles, and events of very local significance. But these two kings saw the folly of such behaviour o the part of two politically weak kingdoms, which, in face of an aggressive policy by a great power such as Assyria or Egypt, could hope to survive only by the combined military resources of an alliance of western states, in which they had part. Israel was the dominant partner. In every age political and commercial bargaining was successful done from a position of strength. With Israels considerable increase in national wealth owing to the opening up of profitable avenues of trade, s development which, in turn, widened the social gap between the wealthy, upper class in Israelite society and the poor peasants.Ã Ã Such a situation was liable to recur whenever Israel entered into a close relation of association with, or, even more, of dependence on, a people greater in power than itself, and it was the main reason for the warning which the prophets repeatedly gave against any policy. In a way not paralleled in the activity of the other great prophets whose utterances have a place in the Old Testament canon, Isaiah took a very prominent part in the national crises of the days through which he lived. Isaiah as a Judge: In spite of the fact that judgment spoken of as if it were inevitable, that does not exclude from Isaiahs preaching the note of pleading and entreaty calling upon the people to return. This is found several times in chapter 1 (5, 16 f., 18 f.). It is Isaiahs conviction that for all this sinfulness a day of judgment is coming. God is not mocked; men cannot disobey his will with impunity. The land will be desolated. Lebanon will become a heath, fruitful places like Carmel and Sharon will become a wilderness, men and cattele will be few Time after time Assyria is specified as the instrument by which the judgment will accomplished.Ã Ã Isaiah often declares his confidence that, however devastating the judgment may be, a remnant of the people will survive. Out of the stump of the tree new life will come. The glory will have departed, the comeliness will have perished, the new shoot will be a miracle of renewed life; but therein is the hope of the people and therein lies the possibility of the continuance of their work and witness. That conviction on the part of Isaiah may be related to the fact that even in human relations a complete obliteration of an individual or a people was guarded against with very great care ( cf. Deut. 25.5; Ruth 4.10 f., Amos 1.6,9). The doctrine of surviving remnant in turn is related to the fact that whereas the prophet can speak in terms of a judgment upon the whole people, he can, at the same time and without any sense of contradiction, speak of a discriminating judgment in which a distinction will be made between the righteous and the wicked ( Isa. 1. 27 f.; 3.10 f.; cf. 28.23-29). At this point Isaiah though of the necessary cleansing of the peoples as consisting substantiality of restoring in them a former righteousness and purity which had become corrupted; he comes near to describing it as a renewal of the wilderness ideal.Ã Ã The message and the people Isaiah spoke to and spoke about: The postexilic community was concerned with their identity and self-understanding. Their existence as a people was threatened by the consequences of the catastrophe of exile and loss of national independence. There were other Jewish communities, and perhaps provinces, in close proximity to Judah, for example in Samaria and Transjordan, and far away, for away for example in Egypt and Babylon. Isaiah presents a vision for these people to understand themselves, their God and their world. The vision spans past, present and future. Israel as a people participates in this story ( Isa. 1.2-9; 4.2-6) and, at the same time, Israel is comprised of wicked and righteous, oppressors and the oppressed ( Isa. 1.19-23, 27-28; 3.13-15). Isaiah gives a clear picture of distinction between good and evil that is at points applied to over against the nations can be applied to Israel itself. Righteous versus wicked behaviour is the important point. There is no doubt in Isaiah about the radical separation of good and evil. What is in doubt, indeed, what is denied, is the equation of these absolute categories with actual human groups, whether defined in religious or political terms. Isaiah represents his vision as a Quasi-drama dominated by dramatic speeches. Even the narrative sections in chapter 6 provide settings for further speeches. The characters are not presented as distinct and historical individuals. They are constructs in the grand poetic work of Isaiah. Israel, for example, is masculine singular ( 1.4), masculine plural ( 1.5-6) and feminine singular ( 1.21-26), where one can see that Israel is judged and condemned, desolate and devastated, and comforted and redeemed.Ã Ã Books Joseph Blenkinsopp, A History of Prophecy in Israel ( Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996) James Luther Mays and Paul J. Achtemeier. Early Israelite prophecy: Interpreting the prophets, ed., Philadelphia : Fortress Press, c1987. Mauchline, John. John Mauchline, Isaiah 1-39 , (London : SCM Press, 1962), p. Peter D. Miscall, Isaiah ( Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993). P.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Reconstruction of the South in SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s Killers of the Dream Ã¢â¬Å"Something was wrong with a world that tells you that love is good and people are important and then forces you to deny love and to humiliate people.Ã¢â¬ P. 39 This single short quote from the first section of Lillian SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s Killers of the Dream is a perfect summation of the changing world many Southerners were facing as they approached the 20th Century. Gone were the days of plantation homes, housewives overseeing 50 black slaves, and many of the ideals that this lifestyle carried with it. As the Civil War ended and Reconstruction worked its way through the South, much was uprooted. This change was hard for this Ã¢â¬Å"landed aristocracy.Ã¢â¬ However, it was equally hard on the children. This quote from page 39 demonstrates why this change was so hard for children. It was hard for children to grow up watching their parents have slaves, abuse these slaves, and then 10 years later watch these slaves rise up as free men and women. After the emancipation of slaves, southern parents reluctantly taught their children that the...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Soulless Technology in William GibsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Burning Chrome An old adage states that the eyes are the windows to the soul. What if, however, those eyes have a trademark name stamped onto them? William GibsonÃ¢â¬â¢s short story "Burning Chrome" depicts an advanced but soulless society where most of the technological advances are portrayed as being perverted by commercialization and human mechanization, rather than dedicated to improving the quality of life. This paper will touch upon the frivolous consumerism of as well as the dehumanizing uses of technology in the world of Automatic Jack, the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s companion throughout the story. Perhaps the most visible example of this perversion is the high degree of commercialized technology in their society. The character of Rikki, a female friend of JackÃ¢â¬â¢s, has her heart set on a pair of Zeiss Ikon eyes, and, as Jack describes them as a "Brand of the stars" and "Very expensive" (Gibson 1015). Though she desires 20/20 vision, Rikki does not want the eyes because they will help her see better; rather, she has an entire catalogue full of the most fashionable and stylish eyes of the season. RikkiÃ¢â¬â¢s friend Tiger gets his eyes redone simply so he can go to Hollywood, risking his eyesight with the not-as-reliable Sendai brand. The fact that anyone would put fashion and fame before something as precious and irreplaceable as optic nerves goes beyond foolish consumerism. It becomes reckless consumerism, putting goods above all other concerns for self and others. As for Tiger himself, Jack describes him in the following manner: He had the kind of uniform good looks you get after your seventh trip to the surgical boutique; heÃ¢â¬â¢d probably spend the rest of his life looking vaguely like each new seasonÃ¢â¬â¢... ... newest way to connect to others without needing human interaction. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s impossible to know when technology will become "too" invasive and society "too" hollow, but by the time anyone looks hard enough, nothing but empty, soul-devoid, trademarked windows will blink in return. Bibliography Gibson, William Ford. "Burning Chrome." The Prentice Hall Anthology Of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Ed. Garyn G. Roberts. NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001. 1006- 1019. Maddox, Tom. "Cobra, She Said: An Interim Report on the Fiction of William Gibson." Hall 142-144. Hall, Sharon K., ed. Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol. 39. New York: Gale Research, Inc., 1986. Coleman, Howard. "Other Voices, Other Voices." Matuz 129-130. Greenland, Colin. "Into Cyberspace." Matuz 130-131. Matuz, Roger, ed. Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol. 63. New York: Gale Research, Inc., 1991.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know where you are going, it does not matter how you get thereÃ¢â¬ Aswath Damodaran Stern School of Business Aswath Damodaran 2 First Principles Invest in projects that yield a return greater than the minimum acceptable hurdle rate. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The hurdle rate should be higher for riskier projects and reflect the financing mix used Ã¢â¬â ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ funds (equity) or borrowed money (debt) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Returns on projects should be measured based on cash flows generated and the timing of these cash flows; they should also consider both positive and negative side effects of these projects. Choose a financing mix that minimizes the hurdle rate and matches the assets being financed. If there are not enough investments that earn the hurdle rate, return the cash to the owners of the firm (if public, these would be stockholders). Ã¢â¬ ¢ The form of returns Ã¢â¬â dividends and stock buybacks Ã¢â¬â will depend upon the stockholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ characteristics. Objective: Maximize the Value of the Firm Aswath Damodaran 3 The Classical Viewpoint Van Horne: Ã¢â¬Å"In this book, we assume that the objective of the firm is to maximize its value to its stockholdersÃ¢â¬ Brealey & Myers: Ã¢â¬Å"Success is usually judged by value: Shareholders are made better off by any decision which increases the value of their stake in the firmÃ¢â¬ ¦ The secret of success in financial management is to increase value. The most important theme is that the objective of the firm is to maximize the wealth of its stockholders. Brigham and Gapenski: Throughout this book we operate on the assumption that the managementÃ¢â¬â¢s primary goal is stockholder wealth maximization which translates into maximizing the price of the common stock. Aswath Damodaran 4 The Objective in Decision Making In traditional corporate finance, the objective in decision making is to maximize the value of the firm. A narrower objective is to maximize stockholder wealth. When the stock is traded and markets are viewed to be efficient, the objective is to maximize the stock price. All other goals of the firm are intermediate ones leading to firm value maximization, or operate as constraints on firm value maximization. Aswath Damodaran 5 The Criticism of Firm Value Maximization Maximizing stock price is not incompatible with meeting employee needs/objectives. In particular: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬â Employees are often stockholders in many firms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬â Firms that maximize stock price generally are firms that have treated employees well. Maximizing stock price does not mean that customers are not critical to success. In most businesses, keeping customers happy is the route to stock price maximization. Maximizing stock price does not imply that a company has to be a social outlaw. Aswath Damodaran 6 Why traditional corporate financial theory focuses on maximizing stockholder wealth. Stock price is easily observable and constantly updated (unlike other measures of performance, which may not be as easily observable, and certainly not updated as frequently). If investors are rational (are they? ), stock prices reflect the wisdom of decisions, short term and long term, instantaneously.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Geo strategic means the importance of a country or a region as by virtue of its geographical location. Geo political is defined as, stressing the influence of geographic factors on the state power, international conduct and advantages it derives from its location. Stephen Cohn describes this importance Ã¢â¬Å"While history has been unkind to Pakistan, its geography has been its greatest benefit. It has resource rich area in the north-west, people rich in the north-east.Ã¢â¬ Pakistan is a route for transportation, and a front line state against terrorism. Importance of Pakistan Location Location of Pakistan Pakistan is located between 23 degrees.30 North to 37 degrees North Latitude and 61 degrees East to 77 degrees East Longitude. China lies in the north of Pakistan while Afghanistan and Iran are in the West of it. India lies in the East and in the South is Arabian Sea. The Importance of Location The location of Pakistan is not only unique in the world but of special importance in South Asia. Pakistan links the east with the west. Some important neighbouring countries of Pakistan are as under. China There is 600 km long territory of Pakistan along the border of China. Both countries have political, cultural and trade relations with each other. There is a close cooperation between the two countries in heavy machine industry and many other departments. Silk, cloth, machines etc. are imported from China. India India is a Hindu country in the East of Pakistan. There is a common border of 1600 kilometre in between these countries. Both countries are trying to solve their problems including Kashmir. Due to this enmity, wars of 1948, 1965 and 1971 have been fought between the two countries. In the last war, our one wing East Pakistan got separated from us due to this enmity. India is always busy in conspiracy by the cooperation of a super power despite of knowing that it is better for the welfare of both countries to developÃ pleasant terms .Fifteen crore Muslims live in India. Their protection is also a big problem. Central Asian Islamic Countries Pakistan has religious, cultural and economic relation with the Central Asian Islamic Countries. Pakistan is the only country that provides them the nearest sea route and transport facilities. These countries lie in the North West of the Pakistan. Afghanistan Afghanistan is situated to the West of Pakistan. When the English got the control of sub-continent, according to a pact with Afghanistan in 1893, the permanent border between the two countries was marked which is called Durand Line. This line is about 2240 kilometers long with the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Both countries have old religious, cultural and trade terms. Iran To the West of Pakistan is the border of Iran along province of Balochistan. It is our Islamic brother country. Iran was the first country which recognized the existence of Pakistan in 1947. Iran has made political and trade pacts known as R.C.D. Its name is E.C.O which means Discipline for Economic Cooperation. Iran openly helped Pakistan during the wars of 1965 and 1971. Pakistan proves its friendship with Iran in every hour of need. Islamic revolution has come in Iran by the end of kingship. It has also better relations with Pakistan. Trade through Arabian Sea Arabian Sea is in Indian Ocean. Most of the trade between east and west is done through Indian Ocean. Pakistan through Arabian Sea is linked with the Muslims Countries of Persian Gulf. All of them are rich in oil. In Karachi Bin Qasim and Gwader are important seaports of Pakistan. In this respect South-East Asian Muslim countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Burunai, Darussalam) and South Asian Muslim countries (Bangladesh, Maldives and SriLanka) are important. Strategic Importance of Pakistan Proximity of great powers: Pakistan is located at the junction of great powers. In its neighborÃ¢â¬â¢s oneÃ world power Russia and the other emerging power china lies. Any alliance among world powers enhances its significance. This factor has been utilized by Pakistan after 9/11. Security and business are two main US interests in the region while Pakistan is playing a front line role in the war against terrorism. Apart from this US interest in the region to contain the growing china, nuclear Iran, terrorist Afghanistan and to benefit from the market of India. Today the political scenario of the region is tinged with preemption policy and US invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan. IranÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear program, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s geopolitical muscles (new strategic deal with US) to gain hegemony and to counter the rise of China. Which has earned all the qualities to change unipolar world into bipolar world. In all these issues, Pakistan is directly or indirectly involved especially after al-Qaeda operations. The American think tank has repeatedly accepted that war against terrorism could never be won without the help of Pakistan. Gateway to Central Asia-(oil and energy game): Central Asia is the center stage of new Great games. Western quest for resources- oil and energy resources in the central Asia. After USSR decline, new quest started which is as manifested by politics of oil. Pakistan is located very close to the oil rich Middle Eastern countries. The belt started from Iran and extended to Saudi Arabia. Thus, Pakistan can influence shipment of oil. Iran is struggling to export its surplus gas and oil to eastern countries, Qatar, Pakistan and Turkmenistan pipeline projects highlight the position. In the energy scarce world, Pakistan is located in the hub of energy rich countries i-e Iran and Afghanistan: both are energy abundant while India and china are lacking. China finds way to Indian Ocean and Arabian sea through Karakoram highway, Significance as a Transit economy: Pakistan has the potential to develop transit economy on account is its strategic location, land locked Afghanistan now at the phase of reconstruction finds its ways through Pakistan. China with its fastest economy growth rate of 9% us developing southern provinces because its own part is 4500 km away from Sinkiang but Gwader is 2500 km away. Moreover, Pakistan offers central Asian regions the shortest route of 2600 km as compared to Iran 4500 km or turkey 5000 km. gwader port with its deep watersÃ attracts the trade ships of china, CAR and south east Asian countries., also the coastal belt of Balochistan can provide outlet to chinaÃ¢â¬â¢s western provinces to have access to middles eastern markets with the development of coastal highways and motorways. Important link in the chain of Muslim countries: If we look at the map of Muslim countries, Pakistan occupies a central location. Towards west of Iran, china extends to North Africa. Thus it can actively participate in the activities of Muslim world-economic development, transport of resources and above all combat terrorism. Only Muslim country with nuclear capability: In the region Pakistan is the only Muslim country having nuclear capability which has great influence on the political, socio-economic activities in the region and the maintenance of status quo in the region. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s link to the Middle East: Pakistan is the only direct and shortest link between China and the Middle East. Imagine the impact of China on the Middle East, if this link is fully functional. Gwadar Port located in proximity of Arabian Gulf and Central Asian Republics provide it unique opportunity to serve both. Pakistan needs to capitalize on them through better diplomatic ties with Arab states and CARs. It is therefore anticipated that oil reserves and other resources of CARs would gradually become the focus of world attention in coming years. However, in case of Ã¢â¬Å"exports to and from CARsÃ¢â¬ a peaceful and stable Afghanistan is must. The port will also help in promoting trade with Gulf States possessing 63% of worldÃ¢â¬â¢s oil reserves and will prove instrumental in promoting trans-shipment essentially of containerized cargo besides unlocking the development potential for hinterland. The most important factor that makes Gawadar Port strategically unique is the location with respect to other major ports in the region, which are all located on the other side of the sea. Gwadar port being towards north can easily provide services and facilities to CARs, Afghanistan and China. Reduce Indian hegemony in the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean: India has a shared interests with the U.S. and NATO in the subjection of Pakistan. Pakistan would cease to be a client state of the U.S. or a manageable state, because of a likely revolution that would occur in the scenario of a broader war in the Middle East against Iran or a far larger Eurasian war involving China and Russia. Nuclear weapons in the hands of such a revolutionary government in Islamabad would be a threat to Indian national security, NATO operations in Afghanistan, and Israel. It is in the shared interests of the U.S., NATO, Israel, and India to neutralize such a strategic and tactical threat from emerging in Pakistan. This is why NATO has underpinned the objective of balkanizing Pakistan and why the U.S. has talked about taking over Pakistani nuclear facilities via the U.S. military. The subjection of Pakistan is also territorially and militarily to the advantage of New Delhi, because it would eliminate a rival and allow India to gain territory that in the view of many Indians was lost with the partition of India in 1947. Economic Significance of Gwadar Port Gwadar Port is PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s largest infrastructural project since independence. Gwadar Deep Seaport is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, close to the important Straits of Hormuz, through which more than 13 million barrels of oil passes daily. Ever since the construction of Gwadar deep seaport has been undertaken, it is an opportunity for the people of Balochistan to improve the living conditions in their province. Neighbouring countries are very much interested in investing in Gwadar especially China and has already spent $248 million in its construction. The geographical and strategic location makes the Gwadar Deep Seaport at a much advantageous position than other competing ports, like Rashid and Jebel Ali ports of Dubai, Salalah Port of Oman, Bandar Abbas and Chahbahar ports of Iran. 95% trade takes place through sea in Pakistan. Karachi port is handling 68% whereas Port Qasim takes care of 32% of the sea borne trade. The projected rise in total trade by the year 2015 is 91 million tons. This will increase shipping activity phenomenally at the existing port. Gwadar will help Pakistan to monitor the Sea Lines of Communications (SLOCs) originating from the Persian Gulf and bottle neck at Strait of Hormuz. Both military and economic power now depends upon oil. It is expected that Gwadar city inÃ future would turn into an international hub of industrial and commercial activity, which would not only play a key role in the economic development of Balochistan, but also the entire country. To facilitate rapid commercial and economic development, Gwadar will be declared a special economic zone for a certain period. The length of this period has not yet been determined. The SEZ is likely to cover the city of Gwadar and the industrial areas currently planned and foreseen. The specific incentives-regime is likely to include general tax-holidays, no VAT and generous incentives pertaining to business ownership and employment of foreigners. The main purpose of this concept is to accelerate economic development and investments, both foreign and local, in general. This in turn will spur industrial development and port traffic throughput demand. It would also contribute more rapidly to employment creation and uplifting of the Gwadar district and of Balochistan. Trade Significance of Pakistan with Land Locked Countries Pakistann is located in the heart of three vital regions: South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia and thus provides the shortest access to the sea for all landlocked countries of Central Asia besides Western China. It is a fast emerging junction for multiple corridors of cooperation between Afghan, China and CAR involving energy, trade and transportation. Communication and trade correlation between South, Central and West Asia passing through Pakistan has transformed our country into an economic center, giving a boost to inter-regional economic activity. Geographically bordered by Iran on the west, Afghanistan on the northwest, China on the northeast, and Arabian Sea lying in the south has promoted the multi-lateral trade with neighboring countries effectively from the last decades. Pakistan is blessed with three major seaports, i.e., Karachi port, Qasim Port and Gwadar port, along with Arabian Sea, which are the main passageway for the transportation via sea to Pakistan also it borders with Afghanistan and China. Geographically lack of a common border with any Central Asian state is one of the primary impediments to accessing the region. Tajikistan, which has borders with Afghanistan and China, is the most strategically located country from PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s standpoint. Wakhan Corridor, an area in far northeastern Afghanistan that connects Afghanistan and China, could be the most convenient land link between Pakistan and Tajikistan. Influence of U.S.A Invasion in Afghanistan on Trade of Pakistan The conflict and instability in Afghanistan in the aftermath of 9/11 attacks and their regional implications had very negative repercussions for the years following the US invasion of Afghanistan not only saw a huge influx of Afghan refugees across the border into Pakistan but also witnessed a sudden spike in the frequency and scale of terrorist attacks in Pakistan. The cumulative impact of these developments adversely impacted the overall growth rate in all major sectors of the economy. Pakistan continues to pay a heavy price both in the economic and security terms due to this situation and a substantial portion of precious national resources both men and material, have been diverted to address the emerging security challenges for the last several years. This situation disrupted PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s trading activities which not only resulted in higher costs of business but also created disruptions in the production cycles, resulting in significant delays in meeting the export orders around the globe. As a result, Pakistani products have gradually lost their market share to their competitors. Consequently, economic growth slowed down, demand for imports reduced with declined tax collection and inflows of foreign investment. Conclusion From a general strategic point of view, Pakistan location is very important. Pakistan is a junction of south Asia, west Asia and central Asia; a way from resource efficient countries to resource deficient countries. The world is facing energy crises and terrorism. Pakistan is a route for transportation and a front line state against terrorism. Moreover Pakistan has been traditionally ally of emerging economic giant; china. So in the vague of any change in world politics, Pakistans geo-strategic significance would further be enhanced. Suggestions Pakistan geography has been its greates benefit. It has resource rich areas, and today Pakistanis are a spirited, modern and forward looking nation and it is undoubtedly no overstatement that educated and passionate and zealous people possesses the most lush mind in the world. What is needed is to justÃ channelize energies of people and provide them opportunities to outshine themselves and proper use of resources thereby bringing a incredible change to the fortune of Pakistan. References http://defence.pk/threads/geo-strategic-significance-of-pakistan.269246/#ixzz3JhbDa5Ru https://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20140520173701-91576495-afghan-car-and-chinese-transit-trade-through-pakistani-ports http://aboutpak.blogspot.com/2012/05/importance-of-location-of-pakistan-in.html http://www.pakistanaffairs.pk/threads/13740-Geo-Strategic-Significance-of-Pakistan Dailytimes 03-Jun-2014 Pakistan-lost-RS 8264 billion in war on terror