Saturday, August 31, 2019
The caste system is a system of division of labour and power in human society. It is a system of social stratification, and a basis foraffirmative action. Historically, it defined communities into thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called Jatis. The Jatis were grouped by the Brahminical texts under the four well-known caste categories (the varnas): viz Brahmins, Kshatriyas,Vaishyas, and Shudras. Certain people were excluded altogether, ostracized by all other castes and treated as untouchables.Although identified with Hinduism, caste systems have also been observed among other religions on the Indian subcontinent, including some groups of Muslims, Buddha. Caste is commonly thought of as an ancient fact of Hindu life, but various contemporary scholars have argued that the caste system was constructed by the British colonial regime. Caste is neither unique to Hindu religion nor to India; caste systems have been observed in other parts of the world, for example, in the Muslim com munity of Yemen, Christian colonies of Spain, and Japan.The Indian government officially recognizes historically discriminated lowest castes of India such as Untouchables and Shudras underScheduled Castes, and certain economically backward castes as Other Backward Castes. The Scheduled Castes are sometimes referred to as Dalit in contemporary literature. In 2001, the proportion of Dalit population was 16. 2 percent of India's total population. Since 1950, India has enacted and implemented many laws and social initiatives to protect and improve the socio-economic conditions of its Dalit population.By 1995, of all jobs in the Central Government service, 17. 2 percent of the jobs were held by Dalits. Of the highest paying, senior most jobs in government agencies and government controlled enterprises, over 10 percent were held by members of the Dalit community, a tenfold increase in 40 years but yet to fill up the 15 percent reserved quota for them. In 1997, India democratically elected K. R. Narayanan, a Dalit, as the nation's President. In the last 15 years, Indians born in historically discriminated minority castes have been elected to its highest judicial and political offices.While the quality of life of Dalit population in India, in terms of metrics such as poverty, literacy rate, access to health care, life expectancy, education attainability, access to drinking water, housing, etc. have seen faster growth amongst the Dalit population between 1986 and 2006, for some metrics, it remains lower than overall non-Dalit population, and for some it is better than poor non-Dalit population. A 2003 report claims inter-caste marriage is on the rise in urban India.Indian societal relationships are changing because of female literacy and education, women at work, urbanization, need for two-income families, and influences from the media. India's overall economic growth has produced the fastest and most significant socio-economic changes to the historical injustice to it s minorities. Legal and social program initiatives are no longer India's primary constraint in further advancement of India's historically discriminated sections of society and the poor. Further advancements are likely to come from improvements in the supply of quality schools in rural and urban India, along with India's economic growth.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Dear William, Hope everything is going well with you. Based on what we have talked through the phone last time, I would like to say some more to let you know better of me. PleaseÃ tellÃ usÃ aboutÃ whyÃ youÃ wouldÃ likeÃ toÃ joinÃ theÃ AppleÃ RetailÃ teamÃ andÃ whichÃ positionÃ youÃ feelÃ isÃ bestÃ suitedÃ forÃ you? PleaseÃ seeÃ http://www. apple. com/jobs/cn/retail. htmlÃ forÃ aÃ competitionÃ description. I would like to join Apple Retail team because I like the design and concept of Apple. As a customer using AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s products for so many years, I really enjoy the convenience and fun that Apple brings to me.Also, IÃ¢â¬â¢m a person good at communicating with others. If I working as a part of Apple, I can introduce to more people about how awesome Apple products are through my own experience. For myself, I will feel happier than ever to work for a company that I always love. After reading all the job descriptions I feel like Specialist suited me the best. -Please explain your experience/skills that you can bring to this position right now. Within my knowledge, a Specialist should have a very good communication skill and enjoy building a good relationship with customers.As an intern in HP, I have leanrt a lot about how to work with people since my job is doing customer service. I love to listen to what customers really need and know how to satisfy them. Also I am very familiar with AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s software which will help me fit into the job quicker. I have started teaching my friends how to use their macbooksas well as fixing some small problems for them since i was in high school. In addition, for a student just about to graduate from university, I feel full of passion and energy to work. -Please list any prior retail experience you have, what companies and positions?In fact, i have worked as a volunteer for Apple before in 2009. That was the summer when i graduated from high school and waiting to go to university. I was an Administrative Assistant in Sales Department of Dalian Apple Store. What i do was mainly introduce and sell Apple products to customers and set up a good relationship with them. -Have you applied to work @ Apple before? What was the result? No, this is my first time apply to work for Apple. Please return this to us so that you can be considered for current and future openings that we have. You can use English if you like, but both English and Chinese are fine.Also please send more details to me: Ã¢â¬â Your hobby Another important thing to me besides Apple is music. Thus, my hobby is to make music whenever IÃ¢â¬â¢m free. I was a Technical Director of the school broadcasting station while I was in high school and university. I also opened a music station in my blog to share and exchange music with other people. Ã¢â¬âÃ Your favorite life style photo Ã¢â¬â The Apple product you have used I have used most of the Apple products. For example, use ti me capsule to give wireless at home and store most of my documents and important stuff.Besides that, i have used airport express as well. In additon, I also have used iPod shuffle, nano, classic and ipad II. As for laptop, I have used MacBook Pro and Macbook Air. Furthermore, i used to own an iphone 3G as well. Ã¢â¬â Your English name My English name is Jockey. Ã¢â¬â Your English capability (Fluent /Ã Advanced / Workable / Basic)Ã I think my English is at the Advanced level right now. I can easily chat with others in English in daily life and IÃ¢â¬â¢m still improving myself by reading English news every single day. Ã¢â¬â Your simple format / update resumeÃ¢â¬ ¦.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Law - Criminal Profiling - Research Paper Example Indeed, it has been increasingly common in light of the perceived threats to the population by Islamic terrorists. Thus, in airplanes, Islamic-looking individuals are subjected to inspections and interviews of an intensity that white people are not normally subjected to. The increasing numbers of crime, and the associations by people that these crimes emanate from race-based communities such as Hispanic communities, are also responsible for the growing trend towards racial profiling. While racial profiling is never really legislated as a policy in its explicit sense, the ever-widening range of methods that a law enforcement officer are allowed to employ allow the use of racial profiling as a legitimate strategy. We now proceed to discussing the costs against the benefits of racial profiling. Those who support racial profiling believe that a utilitarian approach must be taken. The argument is that because it is true that there are crimes which certain racial groups are more predispose d to committing than other racial groups, Ã¢â¬Å"special efforts at crime reduction directed at members of such groups are justified, if not required.Ã¢â¬ (Risse and Zeckhauser, 2004). ... In contrast, those who are opposed to racial profiling dispute the position that some races have a greater tendency to commit some crimes than others. Indeed, in a study conducted, the officersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour of racial profiling is not supported by any showing that the criminal acts in the predominantly white community were committed by African Americans (Meehan and Ponder, 2002). Of course, the deeper objection to racial profiling is that it does Ã¢â¬Å"curtail the enjoyment of fundamental human rights by millions of people who belong to racial and ethnic minorities.Ã¢â¬ (American Civil Liberties Union and Rights Working Group, 2009). The jurisprudence has also tended to support racial profiling. It has been held, for example, that when testing the constitutionality of a vehicle stop, the motivations of a police officer making the stop (e.g., if the motivations were driven by racial bias) are immaterial, the only question is whether or not the officer had cause to effect the s top. Whren v. United States, 517 U.S. 806 (1996). The impact on this on racial profiling is very much evident Ã¢â¬â it basically gives police officers unfettered rights to make stops, even if it targets specific racial or ethnic minorities. In the end, instead of educating the police forces to be race-blind, it condones discrimination on the basis of racial and ethnic differences. The role of geography in profiling predatory criminals Geography plays a major role in the profiling of criminals. Some parts of the world have been stereotyped as providing concentrated numbers of individuals engaged in similar crimes. For example, Latin America is known as a drug cartel haven. Many Americans assume that illicit drugs in the United
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Encounter point - Essay Example The ownership claims over Jerusalem by Muslims and Jews seems to be the major issue involved in Israel-Palestine dispute. Ã¢â¬Å"Encounter pointÃ¢â¬ is a 2006 award-winning film directed by Ronit Avni and Julia Bacha. It is about people, who have dedicated their lives to trying to resolve the Israeli Palestinian conflict through non-violence means. Non-violence was the ideology through which Mahatma Gandhi succeeded in removing British colonialism from Indian soil. The film Ã¢â¬Å"Encounter pointÃ¢â¬ discusses the possibility of implementing that ideology in settling the issues between Israel and Palestine. This paper analyses various dimensions of the Israel-Palestine conflict as portrayed in the film encounter. In my opinion, the film is not portraying the conflict as between two equal or symmetrical parties. In fact the film describes Israel as the dominant party and the Palestinians as the receiving party. There are many scenes in the film in which wounded Palestinians express their bitterness against the Israelis. At the same time there are no scenes which describe any wounded Israeli blaming the Palestinians at the rehabilitation center. The above fact clearly suggests that the intention of the director of this film was never to portray the clashes between Israel and Palestine as a clash between two equal forces. The film is definitely unbalanced even though some perceive it as favoring the Palestinian side while others as favoring the Israeli side. Ã¢â¬Å"In one scene a Palestinian makes the claim the IDF put poison on their bullets. There is no Israeli to rebut that unlikely claim, nor to mention the fact that suicide bombers add metal bolts and screws to their explosives to maximize civilian casualtiesÃ¢â¬ (Gates). In other words, the film says many things about the massacres of Israeli soldiers. At the same time, it says nothing about the suicide bombers from the Palestinian side. The director seems to be taking the side of the
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Summary Strong Response to Damation of a canyon article - Essay Example In this article, the author took an in-depth look at the ramifications of damming a place called Glen Canyon, a location on the border between Utah and Arizona, in order to create Lake Powell. In making his observations, the author managed to launch worldwide environmental concerns regarding the actual effects of dams on the greater community. As the author describes the setting of Glen Canyon as it existed naturally, he tells about a river trip he took down the Colorado River in this area in which the current of the river was sufficient to drive his raft nearly 150 miles in 10 days through a rich environment full of life. He then compares this experience with a couple of seasons he spent working as a seasonal park ranger at the Powell Lake reservoir. This establishes his credibility in having known the canyon both before and after the creation of the dam in this vicinity and thus able to assess the positive and negative changes that were brought about as a result. Having established his credibility as someone familiar with the area both before and after the industrial changes, Abbey then provides full disclosure telling his audience about his environmental interest and generalized anti-industrial stance. However, in making this admission, he also makes a feeble claim that there are a growing number of Americans who join him in these sentiments. While this would seem to weaken his argument, his further discussion reveals that there are well-founded reasons for him to feel the way he does as he launches the article into a more specific investigation of the effects of the construction of the dam. Abbey strengthens his argument against the dam by pointing out the environmental damage that had been realized by the dam. The first problem introduced by the dam is described most accurately as the Ã¢â¬Ëbathtub ringÃ¢â¬â¢ effect. The purpose of building the dam was primarily for the
Monday, August 26, 2019
Home Health and Hospice - Essay Example Medicare is composed of three parts; Part A, Part B, and most recently part D. Part A and B were the initial divisions of the Medicare Program. Part A covers the health care received in hospice and health care without monthly premiums. It is the insurance portion of Medicare. Part B covers doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ services as well as other outpatient care absent in part A with an added monthly premium, which in 2008 cost about $96.40 every month (Shi & Singh, 2010). Changes in payment permitted people to make hospice services payment on a prospective basis under four care levels and adjusted by the wage index in an area. The local adjustment was important because it allowed low rates in regions with low wage levels and high rates in regions with high wage levels. This was followed by a new wage index, which comprised of a mix of both new and old wage indexes however; the new index was still based on hospital wage data. The Medicare hospice rates also varied according to the level of care that a beneficiary received. Initially, the payment system by Medicare was linked to the Ã¢â¬Å"Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA)Ã¢â¬ , and it had a huge influence on the number of home health as well as hospice care agencies. Initially, the implementation of BBA led to the exit of these agencies from the market as it reduced medical reimbursement, and the number of providers. Implementation of the prospective payment system (PPS) generated improved growth and financial stability of agencies. It stopped the decline in the number of home health providers. With the PPS, Medicare paid home health and hospice providers for every 60-day Ã¢â¬Å"episode of care.Ã¢â¬ The amount paid for the 60-day period was a set amount based on a standard rate and adjusted to the type as well as the intensity of care offered known as a case mix formula. The home health PPS depended on a 153-category case mix adjuster to set payment rates anchored in patients attributes like functional status, clinical ri gorousness, and the requirement for rehabilitative therapy examinations (Shi & Singh, 2010). Initially, Medicare hospice coverage consisted of 290-day benefit periods and an indefinite number of 60-day benefit time. Coverage can extend beyond this period given that a six-month prognosis is the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s best estimate. There is also provision for patients to move out of and back into hospice care. When out of the care, patients regular Medicare or other insurance cover them. Medicare reimburses the providers of home health and hospice care on a per diem basis. This kind of payment covers all services offered by the hospice (Shi & Singh, 2010). There are numerous different rates that vary according to the level and type of care offered. Concerning eligibility for home and health care under Medicare, a patient has to present a medical justification to qualify hospice and home health benefits. Initially, eligibility criteria varied, depending on the hospice program. However, patie nts had to have a progressive, irreversible illness limited life expectancy, and they had to opt for palliative care instead of cure-focussed treatment. The presence of a family member or another caregiver was required continuously when the patient was no longer able to care for him or herself. Initially, for a person to be qualified for Medicare benefits, he or she had to be qualified f
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Bacterial transmission - Thesis Example Respiratory bacteria are mainly dispersed in the air through droplets of saliva and mucous produced when one coughs, sneezes, talks or laughs (Shrutz, 2003). According to Rutala et al. (2006), the microbes, which are freely present in the the air, can in most cases be evident on computer keyboards. In this case, their source is likely to be from human contagion. According to Ellis (2006), German researchers evaluated the ability of transmittable organisms to thrive on non-living surfaces. They realized that bacteria that are gram-positive can thrive on dry surfaces for a long time, with the inclusion of vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), as well as Streptococcus pyogenes. The study further indicated that bacteria that are gram-negative bacteria thrive longer than the gram-positive ones. Kramer et al. (2006) stated that, a lot of the nosocomial pathogens could survive on surfaces for months. Further, with respect to the hospital environment, nasocomial pathogens are found to mainly infect the contact areas of hands (Ellis, 2006). These act as the medium for cross-transmission. This clearly shows the introduction of a constant transmission source if no standard measures for disinfection are taken. 1.1. Statement of the problem ... Be it in hospitals or any other public or private facility, the computer keyboard is being used every day to efficiently make service delivery more effective. Keyboards have been proven by researchers to be suitable fomites for bacteria to growth and thrive (Bergstrom, 2012; Hartman, 2004). This is due to the high level of contact increasing contamination, as well as their environment supporting the growth and development of the microbes. According to Anderson and Palombo (2009), research from Swisburne University technology in Australia showed that keyboards used by many people tend to be more contaminated by bacteria than personal ones. Furthermore, research by the University of Arizona as cited in Miller et al (2010) stated that an average PC has 400 times more bacteria than the average toilet seat. This clearly shows how keyboards used in hospitals require measures to counter the effects of the pathogens via strategic and sustainable 1.1. Background information This survey assess ed the presence of nosocomial pathogens and their resistance to drugs. Numerous studies recent past have been initiated with regard to the role played by the healthcare environment in the transmission of diseases (Kramer et al, 2006). A cause behind the transmission has been attributed to the inanimate surfaces that have been clearly described as definitive sources for outbreaks of nosocomial infections (Kramer et al, 2006). According to Rutala et al (2006), Enterococcus species are among the various bacteria that have been proven to be found in the healthcare environment. It has been considered less probable for a patient to contract a Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI) directly from an inanimate
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Is Iran planning to build nuclear weapons See GI 2012, page 18, or GI 2013 page 203 - Research Paper Example This show, Iran does not aim at building the stockpile that would be dangerous and hazardous to the global peace and regional security. The original traces come forth in form of the U.S supported government that was in place in Iran in the 1950s after a coup that took place in 1953 (Dabashi, p 73)). Although at that point, the United States of America facilitated it based on the need for civilian purposes, yet with time the role and intentions towards building this stockpile grew suspiciously awkward. In the post 1979 Iranian scenario, Iran has had a mixed reaction towards the acquisition of nuclear arsenal. Considering the Islamic outlook of the government, the official policy maintained by the government stated that the actions and building of the nuclear arsenal is against the values and spirit of Islam, for it causes direct damage and destruction to humanity, it therefore was officially declared that Iran does not aim following the nuclear ambitions (Parsi, p. 144). However, time and again the indications have been such that Iran is pursuing the silent acquiring of the nuclear stock pile. This has been reported number of times in the intelligence reports that have been collected based on the evidences and other factors through the works of the intelligence agencies. The large number of nuclear power plants and some of them are underground and have not been declared publically, this fact castes aspersion over the IranÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions and brings about suspicion with regard to its actual motives behind the overall nuclear conundrum created. In the presence of such large number of nuclear power plants, one of the most critical one controversial one that has raised eye brows is that of Bushehr 1 reactor which has been built in association with Russia(Cordesman and SeitzÃ ¸p 219). It has been center of attention for the West and they suspect it is center to military
Does Quarantine violate constitutional rights - Essay Example Kaci Hickox, a nurse, returned to the United States to be quarantined. She believes that under the 14th Amendment quarantine is unconstitutional. Hickox was released before filing her lawsuit. Hickox was upset by how she was treated by officials at the airport before being quarantined at her home. HickoxÃ¢â¬â¢s lawsuit stating quarantine violates her 14th Amendment due process rights would have been dismissed for two reasons. The first is the precedent ruling of United States v. Shinnick. Expert healthcare workers would have testified that Ebola has a three week incubation period. During those three weeks, if the nurse had Ebola she could pass it before recognizing the symptoms. Thus the case would have been decided by Ebola expertsÃ¢â¬â¢ testimony. Hickox, as a health worker, would have testified, but she is only one person with a tainted reason to lie. The second reason HickoxÃ¢â¬â¢s petition would have been dismissed is the 14th Amendment deals with due process. Due process pertains to criminals. Since Hickox was not charged with a crime, due process was not being violated. Due process limits the time a citizen can be detained by police until charges are brought. No charges would have been brought toward Hickox. This means the case had nothing to do with due process. These two reasons show that quarantine is constitutional under the 14th
Friday, August 23, 2019
1950's sitcom - Essay Example In the 1950s, America experienced real effects of post wars and one such effect was the speedy economic growth. The effects emerged as a result of the wars that they were involved in and the wars included the cold war and World War 2. The war involved the United States nations and the Soviet Union. The wars were as a result of the nations struggling to gain power and be on the leading. These two wars, through unfolding events deteriorated, that is, after World War 2, America started experiencing a remarkable economic expansion (May, 2008). The level of employment went up. Before, women were major providers for their homes; this is because their partners left to fight for the nations. The post war period brought about the reoccurrence of prosperity and the American states, formerly known as the United States of American, acquired a position of the wealthiest nation in the world. The economic growth of the United States was due to several outnumbered sources. The Americans attained mor tgages in their new suburbs, they got new cars and they used their leisure and talents to the maximum. Due to this, the population in several districts in the United States increased incredibly. Rise in the United States economy after the post war boom led to discrimination, segregation and conflicts to the non-whites. The non-whites were discriminated in job positions, education and housing. The rights that were being granted to the white Americans were denied to them (May, 2008). The white Americans had privileges, they included; voting rights, immigration, getting loans and land acquisition. This discrimination made the Africans to be treated as slaves. The immigrants to the America suffered xenophobic segregations and ethnicity. This discrimination and racism was beyond comprehension, furthermore, no one was in authority to forward their grievances.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
An editorial about the writings of Ida B. Wells Essay Ida B. Wells wrote the three pamphlets Southern Horrors (1892), A Red Record (1895), and Mob Rule in New Orleans (1900) as an attempt to publicize the atrocities being committed against African Americans in the New South. These writings are important today, not because lynching of African Americans occurs with any regularity, but because they are accounts contemporary with the events they detail and because the pamphlets illustrate the dangers of: mob rule, justifying immoral acts by claiming to have a moral purpose, and the tendency of people everywhere to strike out against anything new or different with violence. This message is even more relevant today when the current president is so willing to suspend the rights of others so that the people of America can be safe. The fear of one group of people who mistrust another group should never result in suspension of rights of another. Just like the eroding of the rights of African Americans during the time when Wells was writing, the suspension of rights of people who look as if they are or might be terrorists in the current world is wrong and should not be tolerated. Ida B. Wells wrote with two purposes in mind: one was educational, the other was to publicize the atrocities committed in the New South with the hope of eliciting reaction from people who would then help bring an end to Lynch Law and other injustices committed against African Americans. Wells wanted to educate those people who were unfamiliar with the New South regarding the violence and double standards far to common in the South. Wells wrote to tell the facts about lynchings in the South so that people would no longer believe lynching was a response to an egregious crime. She sought to recast lynching in the public eye so that it was not perceived as an understandable though unpleasant response to heinous acts, but as itself a crime against American values (Wells 27). According to Wells the perception that all white women were pure and uninterested in have African Americans as husbands is untrue, there are many white women in the Sought who would marry colored men if such an act would not place them at once beyond the pale of society and within the clutches of the law (Wells 53). At the same time laws forbade African American men and white women from commingling, Wells points out they leave the white man free to seduce all the colored girls he can (Wells 53). Although Wells writing centers on lynching because of alleged rape she makes an important point when she cautions that a concession of the right to lynch a man for any crime, . . . concedes the right to lynch any person for any crime, . . . (Wells 61). Wells also wanted to call citizens of the North, government officials and people in Great Britain to act to end lynch law. She urged them employ boycott, emigration and the press . . . to stamp out lynch law . . . (Wells 72). Ida B. Wells wrote to three different audiences. To those people living in the New South Wells wrote not so much about horrific events that occurred, but about the justifications they used to excuse their behavior. As mentioned above, she wrote of the double standard between the races and of the potential danger of expanding lynching to suit the whims and fancies of any mob at any time. To those Americans living outside the South Wells wrote to shock them with the descriptions of the horrid events, to educate them about how African Americans were still being treated despite the Civil War and despite the Constitutional Amendments guaranteeing rights to African Americans. Wells writes to the people of the North to show them that all is not well in the South and that the advances made in the past were being pushed aside. In her first pamphlet, Southern Horrors, Wells wrote about the existing injustices and ongoing terrorist acts performed against African Americans. To the rest of the world, particularly Great Britain, Wells wrote A Red Record she respectfully submitted [this pamphlet] to the Nineteenth Century civilization in the Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave (Wells title page). This pamphlet recounts the numbers and details of more than four hundred lynchings occurring in the United States against African Americans. Wells hoped to appeal to the sensibilities of British people who were potential investors in the South so they would invest elsewhere the appeal to the white mans pocket has ever been more effectual than all the appeals ever made to his conscience. To those in power in the United States Wells wrote Mob Rule in New Orleans to those in power in hopes of their bringing to an end to authorities who allow, and at times encourage mobs to act. Although it is difficult to quantify what the actual affects of Wells writing were, it is clear that during the next century, the groups she wrote for did make great strides toward establishing equality and eliminating injustices based on race. It is not unreasonable to suggest that Wells writing had a hand in starting this process. Wells writings are certainly among the earliest of Post-reconstruction writing to reintroduce the difficulties of African American lives, but they were not the last. It is likely that her writing influenced and encouraged others to continue the work Wells began. As I read through the accounts of these horrible, disgusting lynchings I felt saddened and depressed. Clearly there were many injustices committed and many were people hurt, imprisoned, or killed. Some of these are particularly gruesome such as Chapter III of A Red Record, Lynching Imbeciles: An Arkansas Butchery where Henry Smith was tortured and burned at the stake (Wells 88-98). According to figures gathered by the NAACP (an organization with Wells as one of the founding members) there were 3,318 African Americans killed by lynching between 1892 and 1931. Certainly one cannot dismiss or excuse these egregious acts in any fashion. However I was not particularly surprised or shocked by these events. Perhaps it is because I live in a world where the Jewish Holocaust of World War II is well known, a world where a country, Cambodia, went mad, and slaughtered between 1. 5 and 3 million of 7 million its own citizens. Perhaps it is because I live in a world where the recent genocides in Rwanda and Somalia were largely unknown until made into a wide screen blockbuster movie. Perhaps it is because of the 9/11 attacks (coincidentally the number killed on 9/11 and the number of dead American soldiers in Iraq are remarkably similar to the 3300+ listed in the NAACPs figures). For whatever reason, I find myself somewhat inured against these accounts. I am not sure whether this reveals more about me or about the society I live in, but I cannot help but wonder if Ida B. Wells were writing today would there be any impact at all.Perhaps not: mores the pity. Works Cited Wells, Ida B. Southern Horrors and Other Writings: The Anti-Lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892-1900. Ed. with intro Jacqueline Jones Royster. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Political Culture of Texas Ghiassi-Tari Texas Government The political culture of Texas is both individualistic and traditionalistic. The individualistic culture is rooted in the states frontier experience and includes economic and social conservatism, strong support of personal politics, distrust of political parties, and minimization of political parties importance. The traditionalistic culture grew out of the Old South, where a one-party system developed, policies were designed to preserve the social order, and the poor and minorities were often disenfranchised (not allowed to vote). Today, these two cultures can still be found in the values, attitudes, traditions, habits, and general behavior patterns of Texans and in the governmental policies of the Lone Star State. With more than 267,000 square miles of territory, Texas ranks second in size to Alaska among the 50 states. Cattle, cotton, timber, and hydrocarbons have at different times dominated the Texas economy and influenced the states politics. Today, Texas is a highly industrialized state in which high-tech products are of increasing importance. Texas has a population of over 25 million. More than 80 percent of all Texans live in the states most highly urbanized counties. The three largest groups are Anglos, Latinos (mostly Mexican Americans), and African Americans. Latinos are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the Lone Star State. Texas has a small but growing population of Asian Americans, and fewer than 170,000 Native Americans. Although the states energy industry has decreased in importance, Texas has become a leading manufacturer of computers and other high-tech products. Agriculture continues to be important in the states economy, though it employs relatively few Texans. Service businesses provide many low-paying jobs. Challenges that face Texas includes the need to more effectively address immigration protect the environment, develop educational programs to meet the demands of an industrial society, and formulate policies for combating poverty and social problems. Local governments are part of the federal system and thus are affected by decisions made by governments above them (state and national) and other local governments. Under Texas law and its constitution, local governments are largely limited to what is required or permitted by the state. Although local governments provide the most direct contact between residents and their government, voter apathy at this level of government remains a problem. Local government is important to most Texans day-to-day lives. Election rules and the way local governments are organized make a major difference in who is elected and who benefits from government. Texas has two legal classifications of municipalities: general-law cities and home-rule cities. Large municipalities have home-rule charters that spell out the structures and powers of individual cities. Four principal forms of municipal government operate in Texas: strong mayor-council, weak mayor-council, council-manager, and commission. Elections for cities and special districts are nonpartisan, and most are organized as at-large or single-member districts. Increased use of single-member districts; greater pluralism; and the growing number, organization, and political activity of minority Texans are all changing the face of local government. Said another way, both formal rules and socioeconomic change shape the way government works, including who wins and who loses. City governments focus primarily on delivering basic services-police and fire protection, streets, water, sewer and sanitation, and perhaps parks and recreation. They also regulate important aspects of our lives, such as construction and food service sanitation. The two major sources of revenue for cities are property taxes and the sales tax. For counties, it is the property tax. Both cities and counties are making more use of fees and debt. Local governments have a difficult time because they face increasing demands for services from their residents and from the state and national government but have limited revenue sources. County governments have fragmented organizational structures and powers restricted by the Texas Constitution. Counties provide an array of services, conduct elections, and enforce state laws. Actual county activities vary greatly between metropolitan and rural counties. Various county officials are policymakers, but the major policymaker is the commissionerÃ¢â¬â¢s court, comprised of the county judge and four elected commissioners. The many special-district governments are separate legal entities providing services that include public schools, community colleges, and mass transit systems. Although they are important for the multitude of services they provide, the smaller and more obscure districts are more subject to fraud and manipulation. Dealing with metropolitan wide problems is a difficult task. To do so, Texas relies heavily on councils of government to increase cooperation and on annexation, a controversial process. The output of the Texas system of justice has improved in some ways in recent years. Whereas Texas courts used to be inhospitable to claims that peoples civil rights and liberties had been violated, they are now more open to such claims. As incidents in Jasper and Tulia illustrate, Texas still contains hardcore racism, but the state judicial system is working to mitigate its effects. Although there is an argument about whether citizens have a right to keep and bear arms, upon inspection this issue turns out to be a dispute over ordinary public policy, and thus a problem for the legislature, rather than over a civil liberty that must be defended by the courts. The Texas courts have courageously taken on the rest of the political establishment, including especially the legislature, in ordering a more equitable distribution of school revenues. They have not completely succeeded in introducing educational, equality into Texas public schools, but they have forced the legislature to make the educational system at least somewhat more equitable. Arguments are ongoing over some questions of rights and liberties. Although the national and state courts participate in social struggles over abortion, prayer in the schools, and personal expression, these issues provoke so much disagreement that they cannot be settled judicially. In two areas, however the rights of criminals in Texas prisons and school segregation, the federal courts have been very active over the past three decades in forcing the reform of the system. In recent years, many businesses became convinced that the outcome of TexasÃ¢â¬â¢s tort laws was damaging the states economy. They complained that the courts were too tolerant of frivolous suits that sometimes cost businesses so much money that they were forced to close down. In 1995 and 2003, the legislature, at the urging of Governors Bush and Perry, rewrote many of the tort laws so as to take discretion away from the civil judiciary. It is now much more difficult to file, and to win, a civil lawsuit in Texas. This change made consumer representatives unhappy, but as long as the Republican Party controls most state offices, the changes are unlikely to be undone. Economic conditions, the political climate, and power plays are all part of the government generating revenues for state government and determining how that income will be spent. Both taxing and spending are usually incremental, with major changes rarely occurring. However, the states boom-and-bust economy over the past t wenty-five years meant more tax and tee increases than usual and less budget growth. In comparing Texas with other states, we find that the combined state and local tax burden is relatively low, with Texas ranked in the bottom tilth of all states. These rankings are based only on taxes, not total revenues. We also note the significant absence of any personal or corporate income tax, although business has been asked to pay a larger share of the tax burden through the corporation franchise tax. The fundamental difference in the Texas revenue system from that of many other states is the disproportionate burden borne by the poorest citizens. This regressive system raises serious questions about how democratic the tax system is in the state. Democracies are also responsive to the citizenry. The states spending may not meet the needs of all its citizens, particularly when one considers that it ranks in the bottom quarter of all states in its per capita spending for higher education and highways and only slightly better for welfare and public schools. Texas policymakers have dealt with all the issues described in this chapter to some extent, but problems remain on the public policy agenda: The Texas economy regularly cycles through the highs of booms and the lows of busts. The revenue implications of these cycles were discussed in the previous chapter. This chapter has indicated that such shifts result in varying periods of attention on business development. The legacy of the traditionalistic individualistic political culture is a tendency to try to fulfill the wishes of the business community even if state services go unfunded. The transformation of the welfare system into workfare is a national priority with which Texans can agree. However, the change in philosophy and the reduction in federal social spending are both boon and bane to Texas. Texas will have greater flexibility in making decisions on what programs to offer its neediest citizens. It will not enjoy having to spend more state money to pay for those programs. In addition, the state probably will continue to have one of the highest proportions of poor people in the country for the foreseeable future.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Types And Uses Of Coupling Devices Engineering Essay A coupling is a device used to connect two shafts together at their ends for the purpose of transmitting power.In machinery, a device for providing a connection, readily broken and restored, between two adjacent rotating shafts.A coupling may provide either a rigid or a flexible connection; the flexibility may permit misalignment of the connected shafts or provide a torsionally flexible (yielding) connection, mitigating effects of shock Couplings do not normally allow disconnection of shafts during operation, though there do exist torque limiting couplings which can slip or disconnect when some torque limit is exceeded. A common type of rigid coupling consists of two mating radial flanges (disks) that are attached by key-driven hubs to the ends of the shafts and bolted together through the flanges. Alignment of the shafts is usually achieved by means of a short cylindrical projection (rabbet joint) on the face of one flange that fits snugly into a circular recess on the face of the other flange. The chain coupling consists of two hardened-steel sprockets, one on each shaft, with a nylon or metal roller chain wrapped around the closely aligned sprockets and connected at the ends. Clearances between the sprocket teeth and the chain allow for a small amount of shaft misalignment. For connecting shafts whose axes intersect but are inclined to one another at a larger angle than a flexible coupling can accommodate, universal joints are used. The most common of these is the Hooke, or Cardan, joint, which consists of two yokes attached to the shaft ends and a cross-shaped connecting member. Uses Shaft couplings are used in machinery for several purposes, the most common of which are the following. To provide for the connection of shafts of units that are manufactured separatelty such as a motor and generator and to provide for disconnection for repairs or alternations. To provide for misalignment of the shafts or to introduce mechanical flexibility. To reduce the transmission of shock loads from one shaft to another. To introduce protection against overloads. To alter the vibration characteristics of rotating units. Types of shaft couplings Drive couplings A coupling is used to connect two in-line shafts to allow one shaft (driver) to drive the second shaft(driven) at the same speed. A coupling can be rigid or, more normally, it can be flexible allowing relative radial, axial or angular movement of the two shafts. Unlike the clutch the coupling transmission is not designed to engage-disengage as a normal operation Coupling Type Coupling type Description Rigid Flange locked onto each shaft. One flange with recess and the other with matching spigot. Flanges bolted together to form rigid coupling with no tolerance for relative radial, angular or axial movement of the shafts. Muff Coupling Long cylindrical coupling bored and keyed to fit over both shafts. Split axially and clamped over both shafts with recessed bolts. Rigid coupling for transmitting high torques at high speeds Beam Coupling Single piece cylindrical coupling with a hole bored through its entire length. Each end bored to suite the relevant shaft. The helical slot is machined in the coupling in the central region. The reduces the coupling stiffness. The coupling is positive with some flexibility. Pin As rigid coupling but with no recess and spigot and the Bolts replaced by pins with rubber bushes. Design allows certain flexibility. Flexible Rubber disc As rigid coupling except that a thick rubber disc bonded between steel plates is located between the flanges. The plates are bolted to the adjacent coupling flanges. Spider Both half of the couplings have three shaped lugs . When the coupling halves are fitted together the lugs on one half fit inside the spaces between the lugs on the other side. A Rubber insert with six legs fits within the spaces between the lugs. The drive is by the lugs transmitting the torque through the rubber spider spacer This coupling is only used for low power drives. Bibby Coupling The outer flanges of the two half couplings are serrated. A spring fits into the serrations connecting the two halves. Chain Coupling Flanges replaced a sprocket on each shaft. The coupling is by a duplex chain wrapped over both adjacent cnoupling. Gear Coupling Both coupling halves have a raised rim machined as an external gear. The sleeve which couples the two shafts comprises two halves bolted together, each half having a machine internal gear. This coupling requires lubrication. The coupling is capable of high speeds and high power capacity. Metastream Coupling Coupling halves connected via stainless steel diaphragms. High speed high torque capability with good dynamic balance. Single coupling will accommodate angular and radial misalignment and fitted in pairs also allows lateral misalignment. Fluid Coupling Based on both coupling halves having vanes within a housing containing viscous fluid. The rotation is transmitted from one side to the other via the viscous fluid. the coupling provides a soft start. Universal Coupling Coupling which allows large angle between drive halves(20-30o). Generally based on a yoke mounted on each shaft . Between to yokes is mounted a trunnion cross. Needle bearings are used at the bearing points between the cross and the yokes. These type or units are used in pairs on carden shafts. Uses widely on rear wheel drive vehicle propshafts Universal Coupling- Uni-Joint Simplest type of coupling which allows large angle between drive halves. Each side of coupling includes protruding pins. The halves of the coupling are fastened in a pivotting assembly. At all angles up to about 40othe pins interlock with each other and rotation on one half forces the other half to rotate. Low power use only . Not smooth. Not reliable. Really only suitable for remote manual operations. Rigid coupling Rigid couplings are used when precise shaft alignment is required; shaft misalignment will affect the couplings performance as well as its life. Examples: Sleeve or muff coupling Clamp or split-muff or compression coupling Flange coupling Flexible coupling Flexible couplings are designed to transmit torque while permitting some radial and axial and angular misalignment. Flexible couplings can accommodate angular misalignment up to a few degrees and some parallel misalignment. Examples: Bushed pin type coupling Universal coupling Oldham coupling Bellows coupling Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ low backlash. Spider or jaw coupling Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ elastomeric inserts for flexibility, vibration reduction. Thompson coupling Resilient coupling Disc coupling Some applications like printing machines, roll forming machines, laminating machines, corrugated paper machines and paper making machines require an extreme and variable parallel offset. For these machines the coupling Schmidt-Kupplung is a solution. Torque limiting coupling Torque limiting couplings, or torque limiters, protect systems against overtorque conditions. Requirements of good shaft alignment / good coupling setup it should be easy to connect or disconnect the coupling. it should transmit the full power from one shaft to other without losses. it does allow some misalignment between the two adjacent shaft roation axis. it is the goal to minimise the remaining misalignment in running operation to maximise power transmission and to maximise machine runtime (coupling and bearing and sealings lifetime). it should have no projecting parts. it is recommended to use manufacturers alignment target values to set up the machine train to a defined non-zero alignment, due to the fact that later when the machine is at operation temperature the alignment condition is perfect Tools to measure shaft axis alignment condition it is possible to measure the alignment with dial gages or feeler gages using various mechanical setups. it is recommended to take care of bracket sag, parallaxe error while reading the values. it is very convenient to use laser shaft alignment technique to perform the alignment task within highest accuracy. it is required to align the machine better, the laser shaft alignment tool can help to show the required moves at the feet positions. Coupling maintenance and failure Coupling maintenance is generally a simple matter, requiring a regularly scheduled inspection of each coupling. It consists of: Performing visual inspections, checking for signs of wear or fatigue, and cleaning couplings regularly. Checking and changing lubricant regularly if the coupling is lubricated. This maintenance is required annually for most couplings and more frequently for couplings in adverse environments or in demanding operating conditions. Documenting the maintenance performed on each coupling, along with the date. Even with proper maintenance, however, couplings can fail. Underlying reasons for failure, other than maintenance, include: Improper installation Poor coupling selection Operation beyond design capabilities. The only way to improve coupling life is to understand what caused the failure and to correct it prior to installing a new coupling. Some external signs that indicate potential coupling failure include: Abnormal noise, such as screeching, squealing or chattering Excessive vibration or wobble Failed seals indicated by lubricant leakage or contamination. Checking the coupling balance Couplings are normally balanced at the factory prior to being shipped, but they occasionally go out of balance in operation. Balancing can be difficult and expensive, and is normally done only when operating tolerances are such that the effort and the expense are justified. The amount of coupling unbalance that can be tolerated by any system is dictated by the characteristics of the specific connected machines and can be determined by detailed analysis or experience.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Lives of Oprah Winfery and Malcolm X The lives of Malcolm X and Oprah Winfery have some similarities's but mostly differences. The biggest similarities is that they are both very accomplished black American's. Malcolm X was a hustler, robber and a very messed up child. After going to jail he decided to turn his life around. In a few ways Oprah was the same way. She had struggled with her weight all of her life. Finally she decided to do something about it. When Malcolm was a child his family didn't have very much money. They lived in a run-down house with many brother's and sister's. To make matters worse, they were a black family. When he was about fifteen years old his father was run over by a cart. He was nearly cut in half! The police said it was an accident but, Malcolm and his family knew it wasn't. After his father died things went down hill. His mother was so upset by his death that she couldn't take care of her family. Malcolm started to hang out with the wrong people. He became a hustler, he would rob people for money and valuable things they owned. He also started to get into hard drugs during his teenage years. All of this led to him dropping out of school and his mom was put into a mental hospital. When he was seventeen years old he was arrested and put into jail. This was the start of his "new start". He started reading the dictionary! His speed increased incredibly. By reading the dictionary his vocabulary became much better so he started reading books. After serving 8-10 years in jail he got out and started to speak against racism. He was a very strong speaker, which many people, including some whites, listened to. He would always be talking about how the whites didn't treat them right and to fight against them. On February 21, 1965 Malcolm was speaking at a OAAU rally in Harlem and he was shot and killed. Oprah Winfery, a talk show producer and host, actress, and a very charitable person. She began her career in television when she was nineteen years old. She was the youngest and the first African-American woman to be a news anchor at Nashville's WTVF-TV. Nine years after her T.V. career took off she moved to Chicago to host a morning talk show, "A.M. Chicago" which became the number one rated talk show just a month after Oprah took over. In less than a year the show expanded into a hour long program and was renamed, "The Oprah Winfery
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Golda Meir Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The state of Israel, established on May 14, 1948, had many great leaders that helped it to become a state. One of them was Golda Meir. Golda Meir was one of the most energetic and hardworking women in the world. Without her help, it is possible that Israel would have never survived as a state in an area surrounded by Arabs. With all of the hard work that Golda did for her country, she still had time for a family. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When Golda Meir (born Golda Mabovich) was in my opinion one of the most energetic and hardworking women in the world. If she set out to do something, whether it was to wash her families clothes or to create a Jewish state in the land of Israel, the job was never left unfinished. As a child, she decided that she wanted there to be a Jewish state, where any Jew would not be refused citizenship. She spent her whole life working to achieve this goal and in 1948, her dreams came true. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After Israel became a state in 1948, there was constant fighting between the Israeli's and the Arabs. Without her help, The Israeli's would have possibly never survived as a state. In the beginning, Israel hardly had any weapons. Golda Meir once again decided she wanted to help Israel so she went to the United States and She went to other countries to try to help Israel out with this problem by raising money. In the US, she gave speeches at universities and she contacted the head governmen...
Have you ever been in a restaurant eating your favorite food, then just when you are about to take a bite, you inhale a cloud of smoke coming from the nearby smoking section? This has been a complaint from many non-smoking restaurant goers. While it is true that smoking cigarettes and breathing them in causes many health problems, is it fair to of take the freedom those Americans who want to smoke and enjoy their meal? This topic is very debatable and in many cases has reached compromises, but I would stand by the argument that smoking should be banned from all public areas because the unfiltered smoke is getting into the lungs of bystanders who do not smoke, and causing some major health problems, and in many cases death. Smoking is a simple process of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of tobacco, but it has deadly consequences. According to the American Cancer Society, smoking, damages nearly every organ in the body and is linked to 15 different types of cancer. Second hand smoking is another story. While the person is not directly inhaling the deadly toxins, they are involuntary inhaling the unfiltered part of the cigarette. There are two forms of smoke that second hand smoke puts off. These are side stream smoke and mainstream smoke. Side stream smoke is the smoke that comes off the end of a lighted cigarette, pipe, or cigar. Mainstream smoke is smoke that is exhaled by the smoker. Second hand smoke is a Ã¢â¬Å"known human carcinogenÃ¢â¬ , or a cancer causing agent. It has been linked to cancers of all kinds, ear infections, asthma, heart disease, lung infections, and death (American Cancer Society). So if we know that all of these terrible things come from inhaling other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s cigarette s what are we doing to control it? ... ...se everyone who is surrounding the smoker is affected. Smoking should be done at oneÃ¢â¬â¢s house or not at all. Smokers may not realize what they are doing when they smoke around other non- smokers, but they are hurting them. Those who oppose this ban, may believe that they hold strong arguments, but no argument can really beat out they argument between saving peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and killing them slowly. This smoking ban will be for the good of the city of Fort Wayne, and for its entire population. Sources Cited "Secondhand Smoke" American Cancer Society, 2014. Web. 27 June 2015. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/tobaccocancer/secondhand-smoke "New report gives Indiana F's on smoking policies" Journal Gazette, January 29, 2015. Web. 27 June 2015. http://www.journalgazette.net/news/local/indiana/New-report-gives-Indiana-F-s-on-smoking-policies-4740538
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Powermat, Inc. has encountered difficulty over the last few years in filling its middle-management positions. The company, which manufactures and sells complex machinery, is organised into six semi-autonomous manufacturing departments. Top management believes that it is necessary for these departmental managers to know the product lines and the manufacturing process, because many managerial decisions must be made at that level. Therefore, the company originally recruited employees from within. However, they soon found that employees elevated to the middle-management level often lack the skills necessary to discharge their new duties. A decision then was made to recruit from outside, particularly from educational institutes with good industrial management programmes. Through the services of a professional recruiter, the company was provided with a pool of well qualified management graduates. Some of them were hired and placed in lower management positions as preparation for advancemen t to the middle-management jobs. They all left the company, however, within two years of their recruitment. Management reverted to its former policy of promoting employees from within and experienced basically the same results as before. Faced with the imminent retirement of employees in several key middle management positions, the company decided d to call in a consultant who could suggest solutions. Discussion Questions 1. What is the problem of recruiting in this company? 2. If you were the consultant, what would you recommend? HRM Planning and Staffing 2.1 Introduction Human resource planning and staffing is one of the toughest task, an organization has before it. Selecting the right man for the right job at the right time is main task of the HR department. The main task is to ensure that the staff of the organization does not leave the organization andÃ ensure that they are satisfied and that the work of the organization is not affected by the absence of the employee and so on. 2.2 Objectives After reading this chapter, the student will understand the process and problems of HR Planning, job analysis, its process, job description, etc. 2.2 Process and Problems of Human Resource Planning. HRP Process Company Objectives & Strategic Plans P Market Forecast Production Objectives/Process Capital/Financial Plans Plans H A S E Time Horizon (Short/Long Term) 1 Human Resources Demand Forecast N Number O R Category M S Skills Action Plans Recruitment Retraining Redundancy Productivity Retention Monitoring and Control Factors affecting HRP Type and strategy of organization Organizational growth cycles and planning Environmental uncertainties Time horizons Type and quality of forecasting information Nature of jobs being filled and Off-loading the work Type and strategy of organization The type of organization is an important consideration because it determines the production processes involved, number and type of staff needed, and the supervisory and managerial personnel required. Manufacturing organizations are more complex in this respect than those that render services. The strategic plan of the organization defines the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s HR needs. E.g. A Strategy of internal growth means that additional employees must be hired. Acquisitions or mergers, on the other hand, probably mean that the organization will need to plan for layoffs, since mergers tend to create, duplicate or overlapping positions that can be handled more efficiently with fewer employees. Primarily, the organization decides either to be proactive or reactive in HRP. It can either decide to carefully anticipate the needs and systematically plan them to fill them in advance, or it can simply react to needs as they arise. The above diagram summaries the 5 choices faced by the organizations in strategic HRP. An organization will often tend to be to the left or right on some and to the right on the other, although there could be exceptions. A company could be at one end of the extreme on some plan characteristics and at the other end on other. B. Organization Growth Cycle and Planning The stage of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s growth can have considerable influence on HRP. Small organizations in the embryonic stage may not have personnel planning. Need for planning is felt when the organization enters the growth stage. HR forecasting becomes essential. Internal development of people also begins to receive attention in order to keep up with the growth. A mature organization experiences less flexibility and variability. Growth slows down. The workforce becomes old as few younger people are hired. Planning becomes more formalized and less flexible and innovative. Issues like retirement and possible retrenchment dominate planning. Finally, in the declining stage, HRP takes a different focus. Planning is done for layoff, retrenchment and retirement. Since decisions are often made after serious financial and sales shocks are experienced by the organization, planning is often reactive in nature. C. Environmental Uncertainties HR managers rarely have the privilege of operating in a stable and predictable environment. Political, social and economic changes affect all organizations. Personnel planners deal with environmental uncertainties by carefully formulating recruitment, selection and training and development policies and programmes. Balancing mechanisms are built into the HRM programme through succession planning, promotion channels, layoffs, flexitime, job sharing, retirement, VRS and other personnel related arrangements. D. Time Horizons Since there are long and short term plans spanning from six months to twenty years, the exact time span depends on the degree of uncertainty prevailing in an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s environment. Plans for companies operating in an unstable environment, computers for example, must be for a short period. Plans for others where environment is fairly stable, for example a university plan, maybe long-term. In general, the greater the uncertainty, the shorter the planÃ¢â¬â¢s time horizon and vice-versa. E. Type and Quality of Information The information used to forecast personnel needs originates form a multitude of sources. A major issue in personnel planning is the type of information which should be used in making forecasts. Closely related to the type of information is the quality of data used. The quality and accuracy of information depend upon the clarity with which the organizational decision makers have defined their strategy, organizational structure, budgets, production schedules and so on. In addition, the HR department must maintain well-developed job-analysis information and HR information systems that provide accurate and timely data. Generally speaking, organizations operating in stable environments are in a better position to obtain comprehensive, timely and accurate information because of longer planning horizons, clearer definitions of strategy and objectives, and fewer disruptions. F. Nature of Jobs being filled Personnel planners must consider the nature of jobs being filled in the organization. Job vacancies arise because of separations, promotions and expansion strategies. It is easy to employ shop-floor workers, but a lot of sourcing is necessary for hiring managerial personnel. It is, therefore, necessary for the personnel department to anticipate vacancies, as far in advance as possible, to provide sufficient lead time to ensure that suitable candidates are recruited. G. Outsourcing Several organizations outsource part of their work to outside parties either in the form of sub-contracting or ancillarisation. Outsourcing is a regular feature both in private and public sectors. Most organizations have surplus labour and they do not want to worsen the problem by hiring more people. Hence, the need for off-loading. Competence Analysis. Every person in the organization need not have all the competence to do the desired work. The HR department identifies the competence of the individual employee and maps the same with the jobs in the organization. If an employee is capable of doing a particular job, to increase his efficiency, the HR department gives training to improve his competence in doing that job more skillfully and even more effectively and efficiently. Job Analysis and Design Job Analysis is the process by which data, with regard to each job, is systematically observed and noted. It provides information about the nature of the job and the characteristics or qualifications that are desirable in the job holder. Job analysis provides precisely what the duties, responsibilities, working environment and other requirements of a job are and to present these in a clear, concise and systematic way Job Analysis study attempts to provide information in seven basic areas: Job Identification or its title, including the code number, if any. Distinctive or significant characteristics of the job, its location setting, supervision, union jurisdiction and hazards and discomforts, if any. What the typical worker does: specific operations and tasks that make up the assignment and their relative timing and importance; the simplicity, the routine or complexity of tasks, responsibility for others, for property, or for funds. What materials and equipment the worker uses: Metals, plastics, grain, yarns; and lathes, milling machines, electronic ignition testers, corn huskers, punch presses and micrometers are illustrative. How the job is performed: the emphasis here is on the nature of operations and may specify such operations as handling, feeding, removing, drilling, driving, setting up and many others. Required personnel attributes: Experience, training apprenticeship, physical strength, coordination or dexterity, physical demands, mental capabilities, aptitudes , and social skills are some attributes. The conditions under which the work is performed: Working conditions and work environments is a major contributing factor in theÃ performance of the job, and the satisfaction of the employee. Job Analysis: Process To be meaningful and useful for personnel related decision-making, job analysis must be carried more at frequent intervals. Jobs in the past were considered to be static and were designed on the basis that they would not change. People working on these jobs were different, the jobs remained unchanged. For higher efficiency and productivity, jobs must change according to the employees who carry them out. Some of the major reasons leading such changes are: Technological Change: The pace of change in technology necessitates changes in the nature of job as well as the skills required. E.g. Word processing has drastically changed the nature of secretarial jobs. Union-Management Agreements: The agreements entered between management and the union can bring about change in the nature of job, duties and responsibilities. For example, under employees participation scheme, the workers are encouraged to accept wider responsibilities. People: Each employee brings with him his own strengths and we aknesses, his own style of handling a job and his own aptitude. Steps in Job Analysis Process Organization Analysis: The first step is to get an overall view of various jobs in the organization with a view to examine the linkages between jobs and the organizational objectives, interrelationships among the jobs and the contribution of various jobs towards achieving organizational efficiency and effectiveness. The organization chart and the work flow or process charts constitute an important source of information for the purpose. Use of Job Analysis Information: Depending on organizational priorities and constraints, it is desirable to develop clarity regarding the possible uses of the information pertaining to job analysis. It is important to focus on a few priority activities in which the job analysis information could be used. Selection of Jobs for Analysis: Carrying out job analysis is a time-consuming and costly process. It is therefore, desirable to select a representative sample of jobs for purposes of analysis Collection of Data: Data will be collected on the characteristics of the job, the required behaviour and personal attributes needed to do the job effectively. Several techniques for job analysis are available. Care needs to be taken to use only such techniques, which are acceptable and reliable in the existing situation within the organization. Preparation of Job Description: The information collected in the previous step is used in preparing the job description for the job highlighting major tasks, duties and responsibilities for effective job performance Preparation of Job Specification: Likewise, the information gathered in the Ã¢â¬Å"Collection of DataÃ¢â¬ is also used to prepare the job specification for a job highlighting the personal attributes in terms of education, training, aptitude and experience to fulfill the job description. Job Analysis thus carried out provides basic inputs to the design of jobs so that it is able to meet the requirements of both the organization (in terms of efficien cy and productivity) as well as the employees (in terms of job satisfaction and fulfillment). Developing appropriate job design is then the outcome of the job analysis process. JOB DESCRIPTION Data collected for job analysis provides the basis for preparing job description. It refers to the job contents and the expectations that an organization has from its employees. Job descriptions usually outline the minimum requirements of jobs for many reasons: First, despite all the attempts, a perfect and fully inclusive job description is not possible. In fact, as one moves up in the hierarchy of an organization, a detailed job description becomes very difficult. Secondly, most organizations would prefer not to describe the job fully, if it is possible, because employees would then stick to what has been described and would not do anything beyond it. Thirdly, if a job were fully described, supervision would automatically be taken care of by the duties performed, making some of the duties of the supervisory staff redundant. Fourthly, technology is ~hanging fast and hence the nature of job is also changÃ ¬ing. Unless an organization continuously updates the job description, it woul d be difficult to monitor the performance of the employees. DESIGN OF JOB DESCRIPTION A primary output or result of job analysis is job description. Information obtained by job analysis is shifted and recorded concisely, clearly and fully in the job description. The job description must assemble all the important elements of a job, such as essential tasks, responsibilities, qualifications required and the functional relation of the job to other jobs. There is no universally accepted standard format for job descriptions for the reason that the form and structure of the job descriptions must depend on the kind of work being analyzed and the job evaluation plan being used. For example, if the job evaluation form comprises factors such as physical and intellectual effort, knowledge, skills, and responsibilities and working conditions, it follows that job description should be structured to reflect these factors so as to facilitate factor by factor comparison and evaluation of the jobs. With non- analytical methods, job description may be more flexible and simpler but most specify the title of the job and its position in the organization, summarizes the tasks performed and list the skills and abilities required. It is helpful to follow the following guidelines when writing a job description: I. Always be accurate about what is expressed. Omit expressions which are attributes- such as uninteresting, distasteful, etc. Personal pronouns should be avoided- if it is necessary to refer to the worker, the wordÃ¢â¬ operatorÃ¢â¬ may be used. Do not describe only one phase of the job and give the impression that all phases are covered. Generalized or ambiguous expressions, such as Ã¢â¬ËprepareÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËassistÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËhandleÃ¢â¬â¢ etc. should be omitted unless supported by data that will clarify them. All statements should be clearly defined and simply set down- promiscuous use of adjectives only reflects oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own opinion. Describe the job as is being done, by the majority of workers holding the designation. Write in simple languageÃ¢â¬â explain unusual technical terms. Description of a job, which is part of teamwork, should establish the team relationship. The length of description is immaterial; it is not expected even with printed form!: that all job descriptions should be of equal length but write concisely. When the job analyst finds that the data he has to work with is insufficient, s/he shouldÃ stop until sufficient data is available. Put the date of completion of each description and revise it as often as changes in jobs and occupation require. Job description should have the concurrence of the concerned supervisor. Description should contain the initials of the persons who compile them. USES OF JOB DESCRIPTION Apart from being a basis for job evaluation, the job descriptions can be put to many uses. They are as under: Supervisor- Employee Communication: The information contained in the job description outlines the work, which the incumbent is expected to perform. Hence, it is an extremely useful document for both the supervisor and the subordinate for purposes of communication. Furthermore, it helps employees to understand just what work their associates are expected to perform, thus, facilitating integration of efforts at the work site by the employees themselves. Recruitment, Selection, Promotion, Transfer: Information pertaining to the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform the work to an acceptable standard, can be used as a sound basis on which to base standards are procedures for recruitment, selection, promotion and transfer. Work Performance Appraisal: To be sound and objective, a performance appraisal system must be rooted in the work performed by the employee; such . work is indicated by the duties in the job description. In such an approach, using each duty as the basis for discussion, the employee and the su pervisor agree on work performance goals for the period to be covered by the subsequent evaluation report; they also agree on the criteria to be used to determine the extent to which the goals have been attained. The reports resulting from this methodology minimize subjectivity by focusing attention on the job, as distinct from the personality traits, habits or practices of the employee. As a conseÃ ¬quence, the results are more factual; valid and defensible than is the case in other types of systems. Manpower Planning, Training and Development: These three processes are closely interrelated. The job description showing, in specific terms, the knowledge, skill and ability requirements for effective performance of the duties, is a sound and rational basis for each of these processes. AnalysisÃ of various types of jobs at progressively more senior levels will indicate logical sources of supply for more senior posts, as part of manpower planning. It will also indicate the gap to be bridged in terms of knowledge, skill and ability, thus providing a sound basis for preparingj0b- related training and development programmes. Industrial Relations: Frequently, issues arise in the industrial relatio ns field, which have their origin in the work to be undertaken. In these instances the job description may be used to form a factual basis for discussion and problem resolution. Organization and Procedure Analysis- The duties and responsibilities outlined in the job description may be used to a great advantage by management in analyzing organisation and procedures, because they reveal how the work is organized, how the procedure operate and how authority and responsibility are appointed. A Job Description should include a: I. Job Title: It represents a summary statement of what the job entails. Job Objective or Overall Purpose Statement: This statement is generally a summary designed to orient the reader to the general nature, level, purpose and objective of the job. The summary should describe the broad function and scope of the position and be no longer than three to four sentences. List of Duties or Tasks Performed: The list contains an item-by-item list of principal duties, continuing responsibilities and accountability of the occupant of the position. The list should contain each and every essential job duty or responÃ ¬sibility that is critical to the successful performance of the job. The list should begin with the most important functional and relational responsibilities and continue down in order of significance. Each duty or responsibility that comprises at least five percent of the incumbentÃ¢â¬â¢s time should be included in the list. Description of the Relationships and Roles: the occupa nt of the position holdsÃ¢â¬â¢ within the company, including any supervisory positions, subordinating roles and/or other working relationships. JOB SPECIFICATION Workload analysis helps in identifying the minimum qualification needed to perform a particular job. These may include academic qualifications, professional qualifications, age, years of experience, relevance and nature of previous experience, and other skills and attitudes. They form theÃ minimum eligibility requirements, which the candidate must have, for the appointment to a job. A clear indication of specifications helps in generating eligible applications, because of self-selection. The candidates who do not possess those qualifications do not apply. On the other hand, lack of clear- cut specifications may generate a large number of applications, leading to high costs, in terms of man-hours, in processing them. There is a great deal of disagreement with regard to developing complete and correct job specification unlike the job description, which provides more objective assessment of job requirements. The decision to specify minimum human requirements for ajob is a difficult one as it involves considerable degree of subjectivity. There is a general feeling that organisations generally tend to establish relatively high requirements for formal education and training, resulting in a situation where highly qualified people end up doing jobs of routine nature. Particularly, in India, highly qualified personnel are recruited for jobs where their abilities, skills and knowledge are under- utilized. Despite these problems, however, minimally acceptable human requirements need to be specified for various jobs and category of jobs. The format for job specification should include the following items: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Position Title Ã¢â¬ ¢ Education/ Training Ã¢â¬ ¢ Experience Ã¢â¬ ¢ Knowledge Ã¢â¬ ¢ Abilities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Skills Ã¢â¬ ¢ Aptitude Ã¢â¬ ¢ Desirable Attributes Ã¢â¬ ¢ Contra-indicators, if any any. From job analysis to jobless world Job enrichment means redefining in a way that increases the opportunities for workers to experience building of responsibility, achievement, growth and recognition by doing job well. Analysing together the job Establishing client recognition Vertical loading Job-Sharing Flexible job doing pattern etc. Open feedback channels. Whether specialised, enlarged or enriched, workers skill generally likes to have specific job to do and the job require job descriptions. But in the emerging organisation today jobs are becoming more amorphous and more difficult to define. In other Ã¢â¬Å"wordsÃ¢â¬â¢ the trend is towards Ã¢â¬Å"do-jobbing in many modern organisation. Given this general description of organisation, roles that are clearly defined play a significant part in accomplishing the goals of the organisation. Roles can be seen in a variety of ways. Role and Role Dynamics A role is a set of expectations associated with a job or a position. When roles are unclear or complicated performance problem can occur. Role ambiguity occurs when someone is uncertain about what is expected of him or her. To do any job; the people need know what is expected of them. Role clarity is important for every member of the group, but that is more important for new members. Role ambiguity creates problems and the whole efforts is either wasted or of appreciated. Expecting too much or too little may create problem. Role overload occurs when too much is expected and individual feels overloaded with work/responsibility. Role underload occurs when too little is expected and the individual feels underutilized therefore, a balanced and realistic role load is expected. Role conflict occurs when a person is unable to meet the expectations of others. The individual understands what needs to be done but for some reasons can not comply. The resulting tension can reduce job satisfaction, affects both work performance and the relationship with other groups members. The Common forms of role conflict are: intra sender role-conflicting which occurs when the same person sends conflicting expectations. inter sender role-conflict occurs when different people send conflicting expectaÃ ¬tions. Person-Job-conflict-occurs when oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal values & needs come into conflict with role expectations. inter role conflict occurs when the expectations of two or more roles held by the same individual becomes incompatible-such as conflict between work & family demands. One way ofÃ managing role-dynamics in any group or work setting is the roleÃ ¬negotiation. This is the process through which individual negotiate to clarify the role expectation each holds for the other. 7.2 ROLE DESCRIPTION Well-written role descriptions define the work of the organisation and its reasons for existence as an employer of human resources. Moreover, they define and help quantify the relative importance of work, what each position contributes to a process and the organisation as a whole. This definition illustrates an important point regarding role descriptions. Used in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s work environment, they describe not only what the role is all about but also how it contributes to the work of the organisation. They describe the nature of the work to be done by stating the purpose and main responsibilities. They may also include information on the type of person who is best suited to perform the job. Role descriptions are a valuable resource. They have the potential to be useful organisational tools; however, to realize their potential they must be properly monitored. There are two main types of role descriptions, the generic or general and the specific or individual. RECRUITMENT Recruitment is the development and maintenance of adequate manpower sources. It involves the creation of a pool of available human resources from-which the organisation can draw when it needs additional employees. Recruiting is the process of attracting applicants with certain skills, abilities; and other personal characteristics to job vacancies in an organisation. According to Denerley and Plumblay (1969), recruitment is concerned with both engaging the required number of people, and measuring their quality. It is not only a matter of satisfying a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, itÃ¢â¬ ¢is also an activity which influences the shape of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future. The need for recruitment may arise out of: (i) vacancies due to promotion, transfer, termination, retirement, permanent disability, or death; (ii) creation. of vacancies due to business expansion, diversification, growth, and soon. Recruitment has been regarded as the most important function of personnel administration. Unless t he right types of people are hired, even the best plans, organisation charts and control systems will be of no avail. A company cannot prosper; grow, or even survive without adequate human resources. NeedÃ for trained manpower in recent years has created a pressure on some organisations to establish an efficient recruitment function. RECRUITMENT PURPOSE The general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified candidates to meet organizational need. Its specific purposes are to: Determine the present and future requirements of the organisation in conjunction with the personnel planning and job analysis activities. Increase the pool of job candidates with minimum cost. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected, will leave the organisation only after a short period of time. Meet the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s legal and social obligations regarding the composition ofÃ¢â¬â¢ its workforce.? Start identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates.? Increase organisational and individual effectiveness in the short and long term.? Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting. techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.? RECRUITMENT POLICY Recruitment policy may involve a commitment to broad principles such as filling vacancies with the best qualified individuals. It may embrace several issues such as extent of promotion from within, attitudes of enterprise in recruiting its old employees, handicaps, minority groups, women employees, part-time employees, friends and relatives of present employees. It may also involve the organisation system to be developed for implementing recruitment programme and procedures. A well considered and pre-planned recruitment policy, based on corporate goals, study of environment and the corporate needs, may avoid hasty or ill-considered decisions and may go a Ã¢â¬Å"long way to man the organisation with the right type of personnel. A good recruitment policy must contain the following elements: OrganisationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives Ã¢â¬â both short term and long term.? Identification of the recruitment needs.? Preferred sources of recruitment.? Criteria of selection and preferences.? The cost of recruitment and financial implications of the same.? A recruitment policy in its broadest sense involves a commitment by the employer to (i) find the best qualified persons for each job; (ii) retain the best and most promising of those hired; (iii) offer promising opportunities for life-time working careers; and (iv) provide programmes and facilities for personal growth on the job. RECRUITMENT PROCESS To be successful, the recruitment process must follow a number of steps. These are: Defining the job? Establishing the person profile? Making the vacancy known? Receiving and documenting applications? Designing and using the application form? Selecting? Notification and final checks? Induction.? SOURCES OF MANPOWER SUPPLY Once the job analysis is completed and the job specification or behavioural competencies are identified, the next stage is to consider how to attract people who meet the requirements. A key decision is about whether to recruit internally or externally. Before an organisation actively begins recruiting applicants, it should have a knowledge of the sources of supply and methods of tapping them. The sources of supply do not remain constant but vary from time to time. The sources of supply of manpower can be divided into two groups Ã¢â¬â internal and external sources. Internal sources relate to the existing working force of an enterprise while external sources relate to the employment exchanges, colleges, institutes, and universities. The particular sources and means by which workers are recruited vary greatly. It depends upon management policy, the types of jobs involved, the supply of labour relative to demand, and labour market. In deciding which recruitment source to use, consider (a) the nature and size of the company; (b) the level ofÃ vacancies to be filled up; (c) the number of vacancies to be filled up; (d) budget allocation; and (e) the time period to fill the vacancy. Internal Sources: Internal sources are the most obvious sources. These include personnel already on the pay-roll of an organisation, i.e., its present working force.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Tricia Bugarin Katruz Albano BUS 100 15 Aug 2011 Champorado: The Breakfast of Champions Champorado is a Filipino chocolate cereal made with sweet sticky rice much like the kind of rice you would use to make sushi. Filipinos consider this as the oatmeal or porridge that people eat in the morning. Champorado is considered to be the breakfast of champions because this type of food is cooked with cocoa powder and mixed with sugar which is guaranteed to give you an amazing burst of energy for a long period of time.Champorado originated back when the Spaniards colonized the Philippines in the late 1500Ã¢â¬â¢s during their galleon trades where Spanish ships sailed twice a year across the Pacific Ocean between the Philippines and Acapulco. A lot of the trades consist of silk, ceramics, and spices, and because of the frequent sailing, a lot of the Spaniards decided to stay in the Philippines bringing with them their familiarity of making Champorado. Over the century, this dish was made in m any different ways.It can be served for breakfast, or as a snack. You can also eat champorado when itÃ¢â¬â¢s cold after putting it in a fridge. Usually some Filipino eats the champorado with the combination of a dried fish. Although, it can be considered as a poor manÃ¢â¬â¢s food because it does not cost a lot of money and it is relatively easy to make. Everything you will need can be bought at your local grocery store. All you will need is a cup of sticky white rice, half a cup of unsweetened cocoa powder, two and a half cups of water, and half a cup of sugar.You can also add a little bit of vanilla extract but that is entirely up to you. You will, however, need evaporated milk which will give the Champorado a little bit of creme color and to get the thickness down before you start indulging in this delight. Cooking this dish is very simple and does not require a lot of math. Boil the cup of sticky white rice in a medium saucepan stirring constantly because you do not want the rice to clump up together. The rice is ready hen it is transparent and thicker in texture and consistency. Add your cocoa powder and the sugar mixing and stirring these ingredients together. Ones the cocoa powder and the sugar are well blended with the rice turn the heat off and put a little serving in a bowl. Now, you are ready to serve this delightful dish with a swirl of evaporated milk on top. You can typically serve Champorado hot or cold. In our culture, we serve this with a side of salty fish or meat for breakfast.Our society is one big melting pot of cultures where a lot of things are being introduced. It is okay to expose yourself to the many types of delicatessen available out there. The worst possible thing that can happen to you is a swollen throat or you can even break out in hives due to your allergies, so just be aware of the ingredients being used. Despite of the differences that we may have, we do have one thing in common; we all love to eat.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Preference Evaluation Example A. Direct-Objective Evaluation Direct-objective evaluation can be in the form of test result which connected the object with the objective of the test directly through the test result Examples : 1. Evaluate the student learning objectives by collecting information on student performance on tests.If the objective is to make students able to master a particular skill, and that skill is tested in a few questions on an overall exam, the instructor can evaluate attainment of the skill by looking at just those relevant questions on the exam which will give direct measure between the test result and particular skill they have. 2. Evaluate aircraft engine performance after shop visit. The objective is to get optimum airflow through the engine. The object is the clearance between the blades and the shrouds. Method : * measure the length of all blades * measure the diameter of the shrouds * measure clearance between blades and shrouds check on the manual book abou t the clearance limitations * make adjustment to get optimum clearance refer to manual This method will directly effect on the engine performance by resulting an optimum airflow through the engine which will maintain the engine bypass ratio on its optimum level. B. Ordinal Evaluation Ordinal evaluation allows us to sort the rank of the object that we measure. The limits of the values are not clear, so that can be compared only if the value is higher, the same or lower than the others but we canÃ¢â¬â¢t say how much different interval between the values. Examples : 1. The T-shirt size : S Ã¢â¬â Small M Ã¢â¬â MediumL Ã¢â¬â Large 2. The scale of frequency : 1- Always 2- Often 3- Rarely 4- Occasional 5- Never C. Pair Wise Comparison Pair wise comparison generally refers to any process of comparing entities in pairs to judge which of each entity is preferred, or has a greater amount of some quantitative property. The method of pair wise comparison is used in the scientific stud y of preferences, attitudes, voting systems, social choice, public choice, and multi agent AI systems. (Wikipedia) Example : Choosing to buy a motorcycle with criteria as follows : * Price * Economical * Design Weight for each criteria : * Price three times more important than design Price is two times more important than economical * Economical one-half times more important than design Pair wise comparison matrix : Criteria| Price| Economical| Design| Priority Vector| Price| 1| 2| 3| 0. 5455| Economical| 0. 5| 1| 1. 5| 0,2727| Design| 0. 333| 0. 667| 1| 0,1818| Total| 1. 833| 3,667| 5. 5| 1| Based on weight of each criteria, price is the most important, economical is the second important and design is the least important. D. Nominal Evaluation Nominal evaluation classified the criteria but with no relative meaning. Each criteria not represented which one is better or bigger, only categorized it ased on identification and fact of the object. Examples : 1. Number of DKI Jakarta citiz en based on religion (2005) : Religion : Islam, Christian, Catholic, Hindu, Buddha Province| Islam| Christian| Catholic| Hindu| Buddha| Total| DKI Jakarta| 7,157,182| 501,168| 336,514| 28,508| 313,217| 8,336,589| 2. Evaluate the number of people based on marriage status : 1 Ã¢â¬â Married 2 Ã¢â¬â Single 3. Blood type classification : A, B , O or AB 4. Ethnic group classification : Javanese, Sundanese, or Betawi 5. Classification of part based on color : red, blue, yellow, green, etc
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
In this essay, IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to trace the development of Classical Music from the late 1750s to the Post-Modern era in the 2000s and provide a brief history of music, and how they link together to form what we have today. There are many preconceptions of what the history of music is. Some people think it is mainly a biography of composerÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, but they are wrong. The history of music is primarily the history of musical style. In order to appreciate this, it is essential to become acquainted with the different sounds and to hear them in their contexts. Fashions in history change with the generations, like fashions in musical tastes. Lets first start with the classical music, Classical is an era; it is from about 1730 to just after 1800. A few people who contributed to the music in the Classical era are: Ludwig van Beethoven, Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The Classical period focused on the opposite types of sounds- music during that period was orderly, uncluttered, well planned and precise. Music was expected to be technically pleasing and grounded in certain traditions and styles that had been approved by the public, often quite formal. Composers were seen as workers who were hired to write music that would please their employer (Sagebiel). The classical period of music combined harmony, melody, rhythm, and orchestration more effectively than earlier periods of music. The classical period is best known for the symphony, a form of a large orchestral ensemble. The symphonic pieces generally had three movements, the sonata, the minuet and the finale. Building of the achievements of earlier composers, Haydn, and Mozart brought the symphony to its peak in the last twenty years of the 18th century. Haydn excelled in rhythmic drive and development of theme-based music (Bishop 325). Mozart also added to the symphony by contrasting memorable lyric themes in full sounding orchestral settings. There are many styles of music within classical music, including symphony, opera, choral works, chamber music, Gregorian chant, the madrigal, and the Mass. A Classical composition will fluctuate in mood. Not only there are contrasting themes within a movement, but there also may be striking contrasts even within (Vardy). In Classical music, there is a flexibility of rhythm. A classical composition has a wealth of rhythmic patterns. Classical music is basically homophonic. However, texture is treated as flexibly as rhythm. Classical melodies are among the most tuneful and easy to remember. The Classical composersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest in expressing shades of emotion led to the widespread use of gradual dynamic change Ã¢â¬â crescendo (gradually getting louder) and diminuendo ( gradually getting softer). By varying the finger pressure on the keys, a pianist can play more loudly or softly. Classical works show a great deal of musical sophistication and use development, key changes, variation, musical phrases of varying lengths, counterpoint, polyphony and advanced harmony development. It uses very specific instruments, most markedly those invented before mid-10th century and adopted in the 18th and 19th centuries, such as instruments like violin, cello, viola, woodwind instruments, brass instruments and other instruments in the orchestra and solo instruments such as piano, harpsichord, organ and guitar. The classical period had a musical style that was consistent, which means that if you were a composer in this time period; you knew what was expected of you. Haydn had a huge influence on the development if Classical music and so did Beethoven but he chose to focus on a more romantic style which had a simple chord structure. This brings us to the Romantic era; The Romantic music period began in 1825 and ran until 1900. Several historical themes were at work during this period, including the increasing role of science as a worldview, the rise of nationalism in Europe, and a growing appreciation for the arts. The style of the Romantic music period is generally characterized by a wider range of dynamics, a greater variety of instruments, more dramatic melodies, more extreme tempos, fuller harmonies, and expanded formal structures within the compositions. Some of the most famous composers of all time lived and worked during the Romantic music era. Schubert, Chopin, Wagner, Brahms, and Mahler are among the most recognizable names. The transition from nineteenth-century Romanticism to twentieth-century Modernism is perhaps one of the big points in music history. Because the speed of twentieth-century innovation in all areas has been so accelerated, music has also moved from one new idea to another with such speed that no previous era can be compared to. Technology and scientific discovery are probably the basic influences on musical creativity and production. Dissonance became very important and in fact most of the pieces are made up of dissonant chords (Palisca). During the Modern era, many new musical techniques emerged. They were seen in melody , harmony , rhythm, meter, texture, tonality, and sonority . It is important to note that during the twentieth century not all changes in music were a revolution or a return to old ideals. Contrapuntal textures in music dominate the Modern era. While, homophonic textures are present, it is to a lesser degree and with less importance. During the 20th century, tone color has become a more important element of music then it was ever before. It has a major role which is creating variety, continuity and mood. Consonance is no longer in use in the 20th century. 20th century music sound fantasy like, distant and mystifying. Chords are never as fundamental as it is in previous centuries. Poly chords are created by placing one traditional chord over another. The rhythmic vocabulary of the 20th century was expanded with increased emphasis on irregularity and unpredictability. The Melody was very elusive.