Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Photographs are one of the media or instruments of visual representations. It is an embodiment of visual elements which appear as symbols and are linked together to convey several meanings. According to McLean (1973), they are pictures which have many characteristics and attributes in common with other images (quoted in Noth 1995: 461). They play an important role, along with film, in broadening the visual field for examination and analysis and in molding critical approaches to visual representation (Chaplin 1994: 80). This paper aims to present an image analysis of Nick UtÃ¢â¬â¢s Trang Bang (1972). It will narrate a brief biography of the artist then it will reveal the photographÃ¢â¬â¢s visual elements and their corresponding meanings. It will also identify the underlying symbols behind the image and demonstrate their impact on the society. Furthermore, it endeavors to express and to show the implication of photographs with regards to visual culture and visual literacy. Nick Ut (b. March 29, 1951- ) whose real name is Ut Cong Huynh is a Vietnamese photographer. His photography career begins when he has been introduced by his mother to the Associated Press office in Saigon; he is 14 years old then. The occurrence on the rainy day of the 8th of June, 1972, the epoch when the Americans and South Vietnamese invaded Cambodia, draws attention with his career when he shoots Kim PhucÃ¢â¬âa nine year old girlÃ¢â¬ârunning and blaring naked in down Route 1 (Ut 2007); the photograph is entitled as T rang Bang. Trang Bang, a gelatin silver print, depicts the June 8, 1972 event when the children and their families run away and flee the village of Trang Bang down Route 1; their bodies are being burned and seared by napalm (Faas and Fulton n. d. ). The image encompasses five children that are running and screaming and behind them are militant troops, walking after the terrified kids. The focus of the picture is the naked little girl who is squealing. Figure 1 Children Fleeing an American Napalm Strike, Trang Bang, June 8, 1972 Her stretched arms bestow a line element in the image which illustrates balance and symmetry. The eyes of the spectator will usually fix on the dead center due to the strong and powerful expression of Kim Phuc, revealing an excruciating pain. Nevertheless, if the focus of the picture will be given to the screaming boy on the foreground whom is said to be Kim PhucÃ¢â¬â¢s brother Phan Thanh Tam, technically speaking, Ut demonstrates the rule of thirds in his masterpiece due to his manipulation to the placement of the subject which is off the center; therefore the eyes of the spectator will definitely turn and fix with the other elements in the whole picture per se. He also displays a shallow depth of field in the photograph because only the subjects of interest or focus are enhancedÃ¢â¬âthe shrieking and running children, the other elementÃ¢â¬âthe troopsÃ¢â¬âis quite out of focus due to the blurry details of the figures. The black smoke on the background gives a strong contrast in the picture. The said photograph is a historical account that records and synthesizes the incident of June 1972. It analyzes and demonstrates the notion of horror and agony during wars which can be pulled out from the facial expressions of the children especially Phan Thanh TamÃ¢â¬â¢s. He summarizes and encapsulates the terror, fear and affliction of the people during the Vietnam War (Pyle 2000). That image can imply a lot of things if it will be based to John BergerÃ¢â¬â¢s Way of Seeing theory (1972): it is seeing which establishes our place in the surrounding world; we explain that world with words, but words can never undo the fact that we are surrounded by it. The way we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe (Berger 1972: 7-8). With that, it can be hauled that whatever the interpretation or analysis of the spectators with the image, it will still be anchored on what he or she knows regarding the event that has transpired in Vietnam during the year 1972. The photograph is a representation of the reality that it portrays (Noth 1997: 46). However, Eco (1984) disagrees because according to him, a photograph can lie (quoted in Noth 1997: 461), by which Berger (1984) states that the result of the treatment and manipulation of the reality is that to a definite level, Ã¢â¬Å"the photographer creates the reality of the photograph (quoted in Noth: 461). Nevertheless, in the case of Nick UtÃ¢â¬â¢s Trang Bang, it cannot be implied that the photographer has altered and manipulated the reality that he has documented during the occurrence in 1972 because the reproduction of the image, which have been placed in newspapers, magazines, etc. , creates a different perspective from the original photo that is taken by Ut. The reproduction delineates a cropped image of the original (Look at figure 1 and 2). Figure 2 Napalm Bomb Attack, Vietnam It shows that the original, which has been signed by Ut, encompasses other elements in the picture, for instance, the official member of the press who looks like fixing his camera, the lines on the background which probably signifies the napalm. The manipulated image appears more closely to the spectators and constructs a more focused representation of the event. Because of the reproductions, Ut cannot be blamed for the cropped photo because of the intervention of the press with regards to the dissemination of the image to narrate the historical event. It is definitely the pressÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility as to how they will broadcast and transmit the information with wide, visual consumers all over the world. According to Gillian Rose in her Visual Methodologies (2001), the novelty and advantage of photography branch out from its most evident potential: it is about rendering that particular moment in time (quoted Mirzoeff 1999: 67) by which Ut demonstrates in his Trang Bang. In accordance with what he said during an interview, Ã¢â¬Å"the girl was running with her arms out. She was crying, Ã¢â¬Ënong qua! Nong qua! (Too hot! Too hot! ). She had torn off all her clothes. When I saw she was burned, I dropped my camera beside the road. I knew I had a good picture. I got her into our van and took her and the family to the Cu Chi hospital. Ã¢â¬ (quoted in Pyle 2000). Moreover, his magnum opus implies that photography makes achievable ways of seeing what is unimaginable then (Mirzoeff 1999: 68). It does illustrate that the language and expression of the photograph is to combine naturalism and realism. The artifact then evolves to be reality (quoted Molyneaux 1997: 80). Nick UtÃ¢â¬â¢s Trang Bang may be manipulated or not, it still conveys a scheme of meanings and symbols. The implication of an image is created from an interaction of a myriad of schemes and codes. A photograph is not a realistic illustration of what is real in spite of its appearances. It is a material that has been produced in an elaborate manner and approach of production and has been dispensed, circulated and consumed by a set of social relations (Forrester 1996: 140). Burgin (1982) has argued then that a photograph presents itself as something that cannot be disagreed with in which he states as Ã¢â¬Å"an offer you cannot refuseÃ¢â¬ (quoted in Forrester 1996: 142). Trang Bang being an object of representation communicates with its spectator about the Vietnam War that happens in mid-1972. Nick Ut, as one of the war photographers, has to deal with the lack of viewing space for his work because he is confined and restricted to what he sees in the lens compared to other artists who can demonstrate an array of symbols and emotionally-driven and affecting scenes however, war photographers are offered with revolutionizing and altering the reality into an allegorical and symbolic masterpieces (Marien 2006: 46).
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Understanding the Creative Media Sector. Assignment 4 unit 7 Nolan Benson ? Nolan Seth Benson Assignment 4 Unit 7 CONTENTS PAGE Page 1&2 Ã¢â¬â INTRODUCTION Page 3&4 Ã¢â¬â PROÃ¢â¬â¢S AND CONÃ¢â¬â¢S OF FREELANCING Page 5&6 Ã¢â¬â IMPORTANCE OF NETWORKING Page 7&8 Ã¢â¬â VARIETY OF EMPLOYMENT ROLES Page 9&10 Ã¢â¬â OTHER IMPORTANT INFORMATION Page 10&11 Ã¢â¬â CONCLUSION&BIBLIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION When you make a conscious decision to study and work towards something educationally, you have to know exactly what you want and where you want to go after the course, and what you will gain from the course.Obviously when you start you have goals to work towards, so when it all comes together there is no better feeling. Knowing what you want is vital when choosing a career path, so putting in lots and lots of research will defiantly benefit you in the long run. When it comes to making a decision about your career path always keep yourself in mind and remember that you will hav e to make some sacrifices when it comes to getting your dream job. Our generation, the youth of today has been brought up in a false culture when instant ratification plays a major role in our day-to-day lives. Technology is always moving on and up to better things making us, and our world a more sophisticated place to live in. When it comes to employment opportunities, the world is your oyster. Especially living in England, we have connections all over the world so broadening your horizons will always benefit you in the long run, by the end of this report we should be able to understand exactly what opportunities and where will come your way when becoming a broadcast journalist.We will consider the types of potential positions you could work in when working towards your final destination, I mean there is no fun in just getting to the top of your field without working hard in all different areas before. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s highly unlikely that you will be able to jump right into what you wa nt to do. You must take into consideration all the different things you will have to do and learn in order to acquire the skills that you will need to become a top broadcast journalist.Starting from the bottom and making your way to the top is ideal by the end of this report we will find out exactly how to start at the bottom, make contactÃ¢â¬â¢s and connection that will ultimately help you in getting to the top. We will also have an in-depth look into all the places where people advertise for jobs and roles in the broadcast and journalism fields. We will look online especially because everything is going digital, but we will also have a look into what magazines and newspapers advertise for this sector.We will also have a look at the importance of making good friends and acquaintances in the industry that can ultimately help you to elevate yourself above the rest of the competition and get you to your end goal. The importance of personal growth is not only a key factor in the broa dcast and journalism sectors, but also in life itself. So when an opportunity comes around for you to gain knowledge and an understanding of your sector, grabbing it with both hands is really important. Make mistakes as you go, but make sure you never make the same mistake twice. Also actively seeking workshops or courses that will enhance your knowledge is key.So donÃ¢â¬â¢t be lazy, be proactive! PROÃ¢â¬â¢S AND CONÃ¢â¬â¢S OF FREELANCING PROÃ¢â¬â¢S One of the pros of freelancing in the media industry is the fact that your working hours can be really flexible, this flexibility is great because it often means that you get to choose what hours you work, especially when working from home. This cuts down the time and money you spend commuting to and from work every day. Often when you get freelance work in the media industry itÃ¢â¬â¢s got to be in on a certain deadline, this gives you the option to manage your time the way you want to spend it.If you're a night owl, you can spe nd your day working on other projects, hobbies or simply enjoying the Ã¢â¬Ëfree time', with evenings spent working. Alternatively, if you wish to cram in lots of work into a 3-day week, it's your prerogative as long as you meet your deadline and deliver quality work. However if you find that you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t really motivated when you are at home and canÃ¢â¬â¢t find the time to put in quality work under your own systems, then you seriously have to recognise and realise because handing in work of a poor quality will only tarnish your name and your reputation.If you manage to become an established media freelancer people will trust you with work they need done. Getting to this point will take years and years of hard work and dedication but once you are established you will never find yourself without something to do. As a result of becoming established you get to choose exactly what work you want to do so if you particularly enjoy doing one aspect of film for example, you may be l ucky enough to earn a steady income just doing that. But if you get bored there is always an opportunity to do some other medium of work.CONÃ¢â¬â¢S As a freelancer, especially if you are still up and coming and not established and well known, your work and income for the month may not always be guaranteed. One major consideration you have to take in as a freelancer is weather youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to secure enough work to meet your financial needs. You might find that you will have to build up a portfolio of clientele, or if you are contracting yourself out to media companies there could well be dry spells when you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have work coming in and when you are looking for new work to go into.So if you are considering freelancing, then it would be a good idea to either take on some part-time work while you build your portfolio of clientele, or you could save a little bit from each job as a contingency plan for when the work becomes scarce. You should also defiantly keep yoursel f in the loop when it comes to the world you are living in, recessions and economic slowdown can hit freelancers and contractors really badly. As a freelancer, unless you have your own accountant, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to take care of your own bookkeeping duties and tax affairs.Weather youÃ¢â¬â¢ve set yourself up as a sole trader or a limited company, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to be up-to-date and precise when it comes to your tax affairs because you could be audited at any given time. PRO/CON You are your own boss! Becoming your own boss defiantly has its plus sides. For example, if you choose to take a week off on holiday, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to ask anyone else. There is no set start time for you to get to work, and there is no clock watching, waiting for the end of the day to arrive. You and only you reap the rewards and praise for your work, and you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to share the profits with anybody else.However, having no boss to make sure you are working can also have its downsides . For one, you will be liable for your reputation and any problems that arise. Your reputation, once dented, may take a long time to recover if you have networked extensively. There will be no one to share the load when the going gets tough, and you will have to deal with all your clients and their problems by yourself. Nevertheless, all of the above are hypothetical scenarios, and the chances are that if you are dedicated, passionate, motivated and punctual, then you will be able to make a success of yourself and your career when freelancing in the industry.IMPORTANCE OF NETWORKING Why is networking so important within the industry? Incorrect networking could mean disaster when it comes to trying to progress in your chosen career. Networking done improperly could tarnish your name and your reputation within the industry. But done properly it is a key that will unlock many doors on the path towards making a well-respected name for yourself in the industry. IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to give y ou five points on why networking and meeting new people is key to progressing in your chosen career path. 1.Networking is a really successful way to meet contacts that you would previously had no way of meeting or contacting. Meeting a prospective client face to face at a networking event or meeting is by far the best and most reliable and successful way to go about fixing up a business meeting with that person. If a physical and personal relationship is established before you pick up the phone or swop business cards and information Ã¢â¬â your chances of doing successful business together with that person probably tripled then if you had just cold called them. 2. Do not forget that everyone you network with has somebody else that they know.Although your immediate group is extremely important, everyone that they know is as well. Your referral circle is widened greatly by joining a group of networking contacts. 3. If you do a good job for your customer and that said customer decide s to recommend and refer you and your services to four of their colleagues, friends and family-thatÃ¢â¬â¢s great. However if youÃ¢â¬â¢re part of a big networking group that meets once a month, and only ten-twenty members tell somebody they know about you and your business already your exposure has more than doubled. This is great because this gets more people aware and talking about you and what you can offer.By growing the right network, the ultimate in Ã¢â¬Å"Word of mouthÃ¢â¬ marketing takes place. You promote your network, and your network ultimately promotes you. 4. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like having your own management team on standby. Businesses need to be prepared for all types of eventualities, especially in a recession. Unfortunately in a tough economic climate anything can happen and instead of having to rely on people and business that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know in hard times Ã¢â¬â if you network strategically then you should have a selected group of people at your fingertips that you can call upon, if and when, you need support or elp. 5. If you are a small business or a just getting started in the industry you may feel that a networking group could bring to much business, workload that you might not be able to handle right now, due to being busy or understaffed etc. fear not though, networking provides you with a key to business Ã¢â¬âchoice, its not like you are forced to do accept every piece of work that comes your way, instead you have the luxury of picking and choosing which customers and which work suits you and your schedule.Sometimes if businesses are desperate for work then they are forced to take on anything that comes their way, even if it does mean working for less money. If there is a choice of clientele, then you maybe able to pick and choose whom you do business with. This gives you the ultimate freedom to work with people that will benefit your business and that will bring out the best in your work. VARIETY OF EMPLOYMENT ROLES (Broadc ast Journalist) What can you expect and do in the job?Broadcast journalism is the collection, verification and analysis of information about key events, which affect society and the people within society, the publication of information in a fair, accurate, impartial and balanced way to fulfil the publics right to know in a democratic society. This contains and involves a wide variety of media including radio, television the Internet and wireless devices. Broadcasting journalists involved with working in the television industry work in a number of different roles and genres, these include; news, current affairs, or documentaries.Broadcasting companies may also employ them, or they could work on a freelance basis. The role of a Broadcast Journalist is to turn information into pictures and sound, reporting and producing live and/or recorded packages as well as researching, preparing and reading bulletins. You will be responsible for generating content from a wide range of subjects. You will be encouraging new contributors and developing their ideas as well as your own. You are likely to be working as part of a team, generating your own stories and bringing on board new ideas. ?You will be initiating and producing a wide range of news and current affairs material nd will be expected to carry out in-depth research to a broad brief, write material for programme scripts, bulletins etc and at all times exercise excellent editorial judgement and adhere to legal and good practice guidelines. ?You may carry out interviews and reporting duties, in both recorded and live situations, in a studio or perhaps on location. You can expect to be involved in originating and developing programme ideas to support forward planning of material and future programmes and provide briefings for reporters, camera crews and other resources staff and contributors.?You will need to operate broadcast equipment: in radio, portable recording equipment, self-operating outside broadcasting vehicle s and studio equipment in television, to direct camera crews on pre-recorded and live coverage, to oversee editing and operate gallery equipment.? You may be responsible for programme budgets, ensuring effective use of money and resources, supervise the work of Broadcast Assistants and most certainly, as a Broadcast Journalist you would need to develop and maintain local and perhaps national contacts and fulfill a public relations role. ww. startintv. com How to start and where you can go with it? Broadcast journalists should have successfully completed a degree in broadcast journalism, multi-media, TV or online journalism to name but a few. EverybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s path is always different, but keeping opportunities open and available is key to getting the correct qualifications. IT and word processing qualifications are also required. Broadcast journalists obviously start their careers either as a runner or an assistant to an executive.Other starting points could be as a researcher or a newsroom assistant, progression to becoming an on screen reporter, special correspondent, news presenters, and bulletin or programme editor will always be available if you are prepared to put in the hours as an assistant or researcher, becoming fluent in all these aspects will only serve to benefit you down the line. As a broadcast journalist you may also move into programme production or management roles, or become journalists, newspaper reporters or writers.Some broadcast journalists may also start their careers working as newspaper or other print press journalists. The opportunity for career progression as broadcast journalist is ever growing, jobs are available across a range of functions, requiring different skills, knowledge and experience. Initially, a recognized journalistic qualification or substantial practical experience (3years+) is a good starting point. A special interest, for example, in sport, entertainment, fashion, arts etc, with a good general knowledge of curren t affairs would defiantly support your career as a broadcast journalist.OTHER IMPORTANT INFORMATION Professional Documentation/Portfolio In this fast paced an ever-changing world we live in the need for you to advertise yourself and your work as a business is vital in progressing to any higher statues you may want to achieve. The need for professional documentation is vital for prospective businesses and employers you hope to work for. Presenting yourself in a professional manner is important because the person looking you up for a job, the first thing he/she will look at is your c. v. , on your c. v. s everything about you and your career interests, if this is not professional people will not take you seriously. Having a website that can also show your work to prospective clientele is also a key factor is securing yourself a regular income doing what you love, the internet can offer people information almost instantly, this is great because companies will be trolling the web lookin g for the relevant people. So if your website is professional and portrays professional work done by yourself, consider it a key step in the right direction for you career.Also every time you do business with somebody make sure he/she is satisfied and satisfied enough to the point that they will write a good reference about you and what you do for future clients to see. These references are extremely important because they offer justification about what you can do to future business partners. Also keeping all the work you have ever done in a portfolio will only set you in good stead in the future with prospective employers and business partners. Another important thing to keep in mind when becoming a broadcast journalist is to be ever learning and experiencing new things.If you are constantly gaining recognised skills and qualifications it will only benefit you and your career in a positive way, being ahead of your competition at all times will set you in good stead when working to becoming the best in what you do. Gaining skills will always put you one step ahead of the rest. So do as many courses as you can in as many different areas as you can. They key to life is education so constantly education yourself will only allow people to understand and take you more seriously, and hopefully the people you are trying to reach will listen.Maintaining professional behaviour and conduct at all times will only benefit you and your career. No body likes a smart arsed know it all, rather give yourself and your employers and colleagues 100% satisfaction by not rocking up to work late, being punctual will only help to progress your career, obviously if there was one position left and you and one other person had applied, if you have respect and your attendance, punctuality, commitment are all on point and his arenÃ¢â¬â¢t then just by maintaining professional behaviour you will get the promotion over the slacker any day.Being professional is vital; saying the wrong thing at the wrong time can cost you your job and your reputation in this industry. Its cut throat and the situations you may find yourself in are high pressure, so if you take care of the small things like being smart, arriving on time and having good manners, for example, the big things will take care of themselves. CONCLUSIONBroadcast journalists can expect a long and invigorating career, provided they constantly work at progressing and learning as much as possible, if you are prepared to put in the long hours for a small story then you can do nothing but progress into high positions of power. Becoming a sought after, well-respected individual will only help you to make a successful career for yourself as a journalist. To become a broadcast journalist, you should have: Ã¢â¬ ¢excellent communication and Ã¢â¬ËpeopleÃ¢â¬â¢ skills Ã¢â¬ ¢good listening and questioning skills Ã¢â¬ ¢empathy and tact Ã¢â¬ ¢good writing and research skills confidence and a clear speaking voice Ã¢â¬ ¢p ersistence and motivation Ã¢â¬ ¢calmness under pressure and the ability to meet tight deadlines Ã¢â¬ ¢a creative approach with the ability to Ã¢â¬Ëthink on your feetÃ¢â¬â¢ when necessary Ã¢â¬ ¢an understanding of what makes a good news story Ã¢â¬ ¢a high degree of accuracy and attention to detail the ability to work on your own initiative and also as part of a team. BIBLIOGRAPHY www. acareerchange. co. uk www. careers. guardian. co. uk www. bni. eu/regional-news www. startintv. com/jobs/broadcast www. nationalcareersservice. direct. gov. uk/advice
Monday, July 29, 2019
Applying Anthropology Paper - Essay Example This is an English Second Language (ESL) program designed to increase the English proficiency of Mexican immigrant children so that by the time they reached high school age they could be successful in a unilingual English instructional setting. The other articles (Smith-Hefner) in 1988 and 1989 describes efforts in the Boston area for Khmer children from Cambodia to be provided instruction in their native language as well as English for 3 or 4 years again until they were deemed sufficiently proficient in English to benefit from mainstream unilingual English instruction. The data from the studies showed that language use preferences of both immigrant groups were strongly linked to aspirations of success in mainstream American society. Although they showed some degree of pride in their respective cultural heritages, there was also the realization even among children (implicitly if not consciously) that a high degree of proficiency in English As well as at least some acceptance of American social norms was essential to thriving in their new homeland especially in attaining higher socioeconomic occupations. In the Fuller study the parents of the 4 Mexican heritage children had mixed views of the importance of education, but the children expressed uniformly strong evaluations of it at least on a lip service level. .The 2 girls as time progressed tended to use more English in conversations with adult teachers and with each other as best friends. The 2 boys tended to use more Spanish especially to each other even though they were at least as proficient in English as the girls. This reflects that although they recognized the importance of English fluency in their future endeavors as breadwinners, they were more conscious of maintaining their Mexican heritage in their social relations than the girls. The Smith-Hefner study states that most Khmer parents placed a high value on both the acquisition of English fluency and
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Ionic and Covalent Bonding - Essay Example Formation of ionic bond takes when an electron is transferred from a non metal to metal making the two atoms have partial positive and negative charge hence they attract one another. Reaction between non-metals and metals results into electrons being transferred from the metal to non-metal and, therefore, the metal and non-metal forms ions. On the other hand, the compound formed is called an ionic compound (Gaskell 2008, p. 17). In the above example, sodium atom loses an electron to the chlorine atom. Therefore, sodium atom, therefore, becomes partially positively charged while the chlorine atom becomes partially negatively charged hence an ionic bond is formed (Gaskell 2008, p. 18). Ionic bonds do not have a definite shape while covalent bonds have definite shapes that can be predicted. In addition, covalent bonds can be broken to the original atoms which made the molecule because the atoms are close to one another so as to share electrons (Engel and Reid 2012, p.43). While, ionic bonds are solid, covalent bonds molecules are gaseous or liquids. Compounds that have covalent bonds have a lower melting point than ionic bonds because they have weak van der waals forces that do not require a high amount of energy. On the other hand, ionic compound has higher melting points because their bonds are stable and hence high amount of energy is required to the bonds (Atkins & Paula 2012, p.54). Ionic bonds also form crystalline atoms and in solution or molten state they conduct electricity and are also polar bonds. Therefore, most of them dissolve in water but are insoluble in solvents that are not polar (Silbey et al. 2004 p.30). Ionic bonds are formed between a metal and non-metal atoms. For the formation of the bond to occur, the atoms must have high difference in electron negativity and it is made when the metal atom loses an electron to the non-metal making it
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Rainforest Cafe marketing reseach - Research Paper Example This study analyses the hospitality and tourism industry, particularly, the hotel industry of London. According to Ruddick, hotels in London are expected to face a weaker trading market this year because of the Olympics hangover. Furthermore, there is an expectation that tremendous growth will be recorded in the hotel industry of the U.K towards the end of the year, as they are expected to make improvements. The hotel market has been chosen for analysis because hotels represent an important element of LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism industry, and the London hotel market is distinct (Cushman&WakefieldHospitality 4). Given that the London hotel market is distinct, this analysis aims at identifying the weakness and threats that face a specific restaurant. It also identifies the hotelÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and opportunities. Further, the analysis provides recommendations on how the restaurant can improve and maintain its strengths, as well as, capitalize on opportunities. Information will be gather ed from customer reviews, annual financial reports and hotel websites. In this analysis, an environmental scan of Rainforest Cafe, located in London will be carried out. The economic, technological, political, socio-cultural, legal, natural and global factors that influence the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s operations and success in the market will be analyzed. This will be done in comparison with the major competitors of Rainforest Cafe. First, the analysis will begin with an internal SWOT analysis of Rainforest Cafe to identify its strengths, and threats. Recommendations will be made on how the Cafe can improve on its weakness and maintain its strengths to ensure outstanding performance in the market now and in the future. Secondly, an external SWOT analysis will be carried out to identify the restaurantÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities. Finally, a competitive analysis for Rainforest cafe will be carried out to identify organizations that compete with the cafe in general and in terms of product form, product category and budget. Rainforest Cafe Rainforest Cafe is located found in 20 Shaftesbury Avenue, Piccadilly Circus in London (Porter) Par 13. The cafe is committed to supporting worthwhile environmental causes (Rainforest Cafe Par 1). The rainforest cafe works with a UK-based charity, World Land Trust, to try to save as much tropical forest as possible (Rainforest Cafe Par 3). The cafe is among the largest family restaurants in London. The restaurant is built in sucha way that it is jungle-like, and this jungle feel is enhanced by the roaring elephants and other special effects (Porter Par 1). It is themed as a tropical rainforest. Started in 1997, the cafe has been popular ever since The Rainforest Cafe uses information technology to support food services operations, with a remarkable and direct use of information technology. There are other branches across North America and other international locations. This group of hotels entered the industry, and is characterized by significant investments in the physical and operational infrastructures of food services to create a distinct atmosphere and unique theme-based experience for their clients. Apart from providing hotel services, the Rainforest Cafe sells merchandise to both adults and children related to the rainforest theme. The rainforest theme is intended to foster in adult and child customers a sense of excitement about nature, concern for survival in the tropical
International Security in the Global Era Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
International Security in the Global Era - Essay Example of invulnerability of the basic vital interests of the global community, the interests, for protecting of which it will rather start the war, than look for compromises. In other words, global security is a strategy, directed at providing the vitally important interests of the global community. This is the classical realistic approach to the issue. (Buzan 2003, p. 11) It should be reminded, that from the viewpoint of political realism, international relations always exist in the shadow of the war. Thus, the main means of achieving and protecting international security in realism and neorealism is supposed to be force (in its military and political dimension) and the main instrument for guaranteeing international security Ã¢â¬â is the balance of forces. (Lawrence 1998, p. 49) There also exists and is developed the understanding of the international security based on the liberal-idealistic paradigm. One of the central notions of this paradigm is the idea of international cooperation, based on universal values and general human interests. From these positions, the threat is presented by those participants of international relations, which refuse from cooperation and break the generally accepted moral and legislative norms. Collective security is the only way for overcoming the security dilemma, which goes through creation and strengthening of international institutions, further improvement of international law and following the generally accepted moral norms. (Buzan 2003, p. 44) The notion of collective security is the main and the most operational in the total security complex. Collective security is the situation, under which all members of certain community refuse from applying force in relations with each other and agree to give any assistance to each participating state, which has been attacked by any state of the mentioned community. International security at present time should meet a number of conditions, which are very difficult to accomplish. They may be
Friday, July 26, 2019
Internet Marketing Project - Essay Example In the onset of advanced information technology, internet marketing has become an integral part of its existence. Marketers use this as an opportunity to market their products and service offerings. The purpose of this report aims to create a comprehensive web traffic and marketing plan to promote and develop the Facebook group website--MarketNet. The information and ideas used in this report are coming from reliable journal articles and relevant textbooks. All ideas especially in the section of web market plan include important marketing concepts that are practically obtained from various marketing studies. Central Queensland students are increasing in number and they are coming from local and international. The increase of students ensures increase of website traffic at Alexa, the Central Queensland University website. It is found that from demographics, psychographic, geographic and behavioral analysis, students tend to appreciate the value of website for them to use relevant information based on their needs. The Web Traffic Plan is a comprehensive strategic move to ensure successful implementation of marketing objectives prior to increase web traffic for MarketNet. The plan started with different marketing objectives then followed by strategic moves based on the principles of extended marketing mix. Finally, the proponent tries to indicate important activity measures that will help ensure that the marketing objectives are remarkably achieved. ... in traditional approach of sharing information about their product or service offerings, but specifically on employing the best strategies by using the full potential of internet. Today, marketing finds its way through social network sites. It tries to implement this by ensuring remarkable traffic. However, social network sites need also to promote themselves. In the case of Facebook, competition is very tough. There are various social network sites that try to compete in order to become a cut above the other. Thus, the goal for each of them especially for Facebook is to market this site. One way of doing this is to ensure high traffic and substantial marketing plan. 1.2 Aims This report aims to create a comprehensive web traffic and marketing plan to promote and develop the Facebook group website--MarketNet. 1.3 Scope This report includes the following: target audience analysis of the marketing students at Central Queensland University, and web traffic plan for the promotion and dev elopment of Facebook group website MarketNet. The information and ideas used in this report are coming from reliable journal articles and relevant textbooks. All ideas especially in the section of web market plan includes important marketing concepts that are practically obtained from various marketing studies. 2.0 Target audience analysis (Central Queensland University marketing students ) In order to help analyze this part, the proponent uses database graph from Alexa which can be found from the following website: http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/cqu.edu.au. In the following subsections, parts of the target audience analysis include discussions in line with demographics, psychographics, geographic and behavioral. 2.1 Demographics Table 1. Search Traffic of Central Queensland UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Discuss artistic production during the Byzantine period - Essay Example The history of artistic production in the Byzantine period Arguably, artistic production denotes the creation of objects that viewers would perceive as significant or rather beautiful. Further, art highlights on the important factors prevailing in a certain community over a given period. During the Byzantine period, Emperor Constantine ruled the territory and enforced construction of Aelia Capitolina, which served as the main city after replacing the ruins of Jerusalem city (Nici 261). He emphasized that the whole empire needed to profess the Christian faith thus inhibiting the inhabitants from adapting or embracing any other religions presented in the kingdom. Fig. 1 Constantine Sculpture Therefore, Constantine served as a major stimulating factor towards the renowned artistic production in the empire as he ordered the building of some of the historically renowned churches in the Middle East (Richardson, Angeliki, and Kim 82). For instance, Constantine ordered for the building of th e Basilica church and other monuments around the city. Chronological accounts further present that the Byzantine society built the Rotunda during the reign of Emperor Constantine as an owner to his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams about the tomb of Jesus Christ (Jeffreys 132). Further, the society had other numerous distinctive cultures that prevailed over several dynasties. Mainly, the building of streets marked the second largest and globally recognized cultural activity of the Byzantium dynasty. For instance, the building of the Cardo street and narrowing of the Roman-built streets such that the Byzantine streets intersected at the empires city square and extended perpendicularly to other worshipping sites in the North and South regions, and the East and West regions of the empire. Further, Constantine elevated numerous monuments along the streets that led to the worshipping centers to honor numerous biblical teachings (Onians 164). Therefore, it is sound to argue out that Byzantine art wa s a form of denoting Christian teachings and promoting the religion during the barbaric period. Further, the empireÃ¢â¬â¢s culture contributed to the recognition of the Renaissance period after the evasion of obstacles that focused on savoring the empire into rubbles. Some of the periodÃ¢â¬â¢s most renowned artistic productions The empireÃ¢â¬â¢s artists were well known for their passion in the creation of monuments and mosaics for example, creation of Ã¢â¬Å"The Image of Christ of Pantocrator.Ã¢â¬ The artistic production is one of the most infamous mosaics of the Byzantine period, from the Hagia and Sophia in Constantinople period. Mainly, history assumes that most of the Christian paintings targeted to draw the involvement of Christianity in the region despite the threat of Muslim invaders who were apparently seeking to spread their religion across the Asian and European regions (Richardson, Angeliki, and Kim 85). Fig.2 the mosaic of Christ of Pantocrator Since the Constan tinople Empire toppled the Roman Empire, it did not readily produce its own art but continued to develop the Roman EmpireÃ¢â¬â¢s arts. Mainly, the Byzantine art coincided with the Greek artwork since the predecessors had borrowed their artistic designs,
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Discuss whistle-blowing in nursing. (Please cover the pros and cons of whistle blowing and it's relevance to nurse empowerment) - Research Paper Example Furthermore, a nurse might also act as a health advisor for the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ future well being. The American Nursing Association (ANA) states, Ã¢â¬Å"nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populationsÃ¢â¬ (What is Nursing 2012). Despite the level of input required, the reward for this profession mostly shows up as a bully. Majority of the nurses face social demons at work such as discrimination, over exploitation and verbal or even in some cases, physical abuse. Through a survey conducted of 612 nurses, 67.5% have, at some point or the other suffered inappropriate behavior from their managers. American Nursing Association has stated that 56.9% have either been threatened or been abused verbally at work. (Malcolm 2006; Spence, Leiter, Day, & Gilin 2009; ANA 2001). Whistle blowing is a terminology used when an employee of an organization who objects over illegal or unethical practices that takes place within the business. Depending upon the nature of the management style, whistle blowing can have its advantages but, in some cases quite severe repercussions. Many within a firm might consider whistle blowing no less than an act of treachery while for some companies or organizations, whistle blowing is just another form of collaborative and collective ideas to cut costs and improve efficiency from all areas of the firm. Encouraging employees from all levels of hierarchy to step up and contribute towards the betterment of the institution, collectively. However, fact is, such an attitude is rare to be found. News reports and surveys represent clearly that healthcare institutions are not in favor of such an activity and view whistle blowing as cynical criticism that diminishes its public image. Nurse practitioners have suffered the most, socially an d
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Marketing in Hospitality industry - Essay Example Marketing in Hospitality industry This boils down to the fact that reaching a near exact (if not exact) supply and demand equation is important for achieving company goals. In hospitality industry, market supply can be measured by the number of beds or hotels available in an area. They are categorized as budget, mid-market or luxury experiences. Demand, which is an important factor in determining the profitability of a hospitality organization can be categorized as negative, nil, latent, falling, irregular, full , overfull an unwholesome ). Each demand type requires a different marketing strategy. For example if there is a latent demand it means that demand can be created by providing services that customers need. For example, many hotels provide Ã¢â¬Å"domestic short breaksÃ¢â¬ as a way of creating latent demand (Bowie and Buttle 2004). Another demand categorization stems from different types of travel which can be business travel and travel for leisure. Both these could be domestic and international. Hospitality industry is characterized by cyclical trends. For example, many tourist destinations close down during adverse weather conditions like extreme heat (e.g. UAE) or extreme cold. Thus, the hotels and restaurants have to ensure that they either earn enough during the peak tourist seasons to sustain their operational costs during the troughs or come up with marketing techniques to attract customers during these times. Socio-cultural factors also impact this industry to a great extent. Eating and drinking habits, travel habits and types of entertainment that people like to indulge in are all important factors that the hotels and restaurants in a particular area need to keep in mind before designing services or products. Demographic factors also impact this industry. For example, countries that have aging population need to have restaurants that have menus according to their liking which would be very different from those in younger countries. Technological advances in communica tion as well as kitchen equipment are vital factors affecting hospitality marketers. Environmental factors have today become very sensitive issues for marketers of this industry. The race for setting up new leisure properties has had an adverse impact on the environment which the local populations have started acknowledging now. Local population of these places has felt the effects of deforestation and carbon emission resulting from ferrying tourists from one place to the other. Thus, the marketers need to keep these sensitive issues in mind and promote green services which do not harm the environment. The intermingling of the local and foreign population also has impact on the social and cultural values of the local youth. Internal factors that impact this industry are suppliers, employees, intermediaries, competitors, publics and customers (Bowie and Buttle 2004). Suppliers are very important for a restaurant of a hotel to maintain quality. Employees are of utmost significance in this business as they are the face of the organization. Service is an intangible experience which is highly dependent on courtesy as well as skill. Intermediaries are important links between the customers and the hoteliers. They help to influence consumer choices for a particular destination and hotel. Competition like any other industry is very important factor in determining the marketing strategy. Direct competitors can be tackled by designing value add services but indirect competitors pose equal amount of threat as the direct ones. For example, the decision on buying a luxury car vs. going on a holiday has a significant impact on the business generation for this industry. High fixed cost is another important characteristic of this industry.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Designer Babies Essay In this modern society, human thought are growing widely resulting the huge development of reproductive technologies in our life. Designer babies are created for elimination of deadly diseases and also genetic enhancement. Today, this technology has been established as an acceptable practice in removing diseases only. However, when it comes to genetic enhancements, ethical issues happen in the aspects of individuals, society and religions. According to Johnson (2009), Ã¢â¬Ëdesigner babyÃ¢â¬â¢ is defined as the baby whose genetically makeup has been artificially selected through In-vitro Fertilization to ensure the presence and absence of particular genes or characteristic. Johnson (2009) also claimed that genetic screening can reduce the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s chances of getting several diseases like Down syndrome. According to Brownlee (2002), in the mid-1990s, an embryologist named Jacques Cohen created a promising new technique, cytoplasmic transfer for helping infertile women to have children. In early 2003, he reported the first modification in the human genome. Cohen (2003) has created the first bioengineered baby who has three genetic parents which are mother, father, and mtDNA donor and they claimed that as The first case of human [inheritable] genetic modification resulting in normal, healthy children. According to Adnan (2010), designer babies are made in in-vitro fertilization with certain steps. Firstly, the woman hormones are taken to boost the production of egg. The womanÃ¢â¬â¢s egg is then removed from the ovary with the help of a special needle. The egg is fertilized and is allowed to grow into an embryo for 2 days. Scientists then screen for genes which have the risk of illness in life like Alzheimers, Cystic fibrosis and DownÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome. The DNA copies are run through by using a sequencing machine. If the genetic disorder appears, those defected genes can be replaced with the healthy genes in a process called germ line therapy. Besides, scientists are able to determine the sex of the child. This is possible because woman contains only X chromosomes and man has one X and one Y chromosome. So the sex of the child can be determined by XY chromosomes. According to Tesia (2009), parents are the people who want designer baby, especially those who have an unhealthy embryo affected by deadly diseases. This is a relief to these parents as they need not to be burdened up by the expensive fees for the endless treatments that their child has to undergo of choosing by the designer baby. They choose to have a designer baby as it can avoid all the pain that they have to bear seeing their child undergoing endless suffering treatments. Designer baby also prevent their child from having a preventable disease and this will definitely relieve those parents from the financial, emotional and physical burden. Agar (2006) claimed that pre-implantation genetic diagnosis PGD is not entirely risk-free as during the process of PGD. Two cells are removed from the eight cells embryo and this may affect the growth of the embryo, whereas defenders of PGD respond that the cells of eight-cell embryos are totipotent, this mean that the eight cells embryo is still able to form all cells of the human body although two cells is removed from it. This technology has been used for a very long time, hence it is too early to say that who is certainly right in this argument. In an article written by Naik (2009), he stated that in a 2009 U.S. survey, a total of 999 people sought for genetic counseling. Most of people supported prenatal genetic tests for the removal of serious diseases. Besides, according to the survey conducted by researchers at the New York University School of Medicine, some respondents said they would want genetic testing for athletic ability, some voted for improved height and some voted for great intelligence. According to Dvorsky(2009), an excellent transhumanist bioethicist, he stated that an anti-genetic modification due to enhancement occurred in our society. A majority were replying the survey carried out by NYU Langone Medical Center due to their background condition. Their thinking was believed from an ethical perspective. Supporting the idea of genetic modification, Dvorsky(2009) said that endowing our children with good genes in order to give them an enriched and fulfilling life. With new genetics, parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ dreams may finally be achieved as they always want the best for their children. According to Anissimov(2009), many people refuse to accept PGD and other reproductive technologies because they think that it is unnatural. From the Transhumanist FAQ, a summary from transhumanistsÃ¢â¬â¢ response stated that in many cases, there are some practical reasons for depending on natural processes. The main point is that human cannot decide whether something is good or bad by its nature. Not every natural things are good such as starvation, polio, and being eaten alive by intestinal parasites whereas some bad unnatural things are car accidents and nuclear war. However, Yin (2005) notes that from a childÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, parents place the genetic enhancements upon him or her may threaten the freedom of action. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement in life is not fully determined by his or her own efforts, but from parental decisions. This might result in unwillingness of the child to accept responsibilities. Besides, Yin (2005) also states that some oppose genetic engineering because it will not only deepen current class divisions, but also create a new division. Due to religious and other personal reasons, many people will refuse to accept gene therapy even if the enhancements are made free because it causes the economic gap between those can afford the technology and cannot afford deepen as time progresses. Some of them reject it due to its expensive paid and lack of efficacy. According to Adnan (2010), the designer baby will raise conflict among individuals. This is because they assume that the rich will always be more beneficial compared to the poor. They propose that the rich will have more opportunities to take the advantages of the modern technology resulting the rich man baby (designer baby) will born perfect, intelligent and healthier compared to the poor baby. Though this technology can advance the personalities and intelligence, but it will be costly and will create a gap between the individuals. McIlwaine (2006) claimed that some leading philosophers will argue that a person must have capacity for memorable experiences, for communicating with others and for having preferences about continued life, or someone who is capable of treasuring their own life. With these points of view, these obviously show that they do not accept an embryo, or a foetus can be a person. For those who believe that human life only comes with self-valuation, testing on embryos and the screening of the right genetic make-up is a perfectly ethical procedure, for those embryos that are discarded are not Ã¢â¬ËpeopleÃ¢â¬â¢. So, there is no wrong in moral. However, this raises serious issues about other human beings who may by this definition, not be Ã¢â¬ËpeopleÃ¢â¬â¢ including the new born babies with brain abnormalities and injuries. According to McIlwaine (2006), designer babies also lead to ethical issues in religion too. This is due to different religions will have their own points of view. Christians say that the life begins at conception. It is clearly stated in Bible: Ã¢â¬Å"Before you were in the womb I knew you, before you were born, I set you apartÃ¢â¬ . This means that God chose each person even before the moment of implantation, however some are less certain. According to Malpani (2009), in Judaism, donor insemination is banned and a child is considered as the generation of the biological father. Artificial insemination using husbands sperm and IVF are accepted when there is necessary to cure the illness of infertility. From the research done, designer babies have arisen many ethical issues in the aspects of individuals, religions and society. Parents always hope to give the best for their children. With this advanced technology, some parents will take advantage on it to give their children the perfect lives. This will indirectly cause the narrowing of divisions in our society which is from social to ethical and then to economical. The rich families are usually genetically better endowed than the poor families and their jobs always come with high income compared to the poor one. As for the religious aspect, Christians note that personhood begins at conception, the moment an ovum is fertilized. However, there is variation in explaining the Bible and not everyone believe in it. Some doubt about this because if the number of lost fertilized ovum disobey this point of view, then how could the God stop the existence of some Ã¢â¬Å"peopleÃ¢â¬ in this world without any reason?
Learning experience Essay When I think about Ã¢â¬Å"Learning Experiences,Ã¢â¬ I think of every situation someone finds themselves in as a learning experience. People have not traditionally used that phrase in relating to more formal learning interventions Ã¢â¬â i. e. classroom, but from a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, both formally and informally, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s exactly what is happening: learners are experiencing something that, hopefully, results in a change in thinking, understanding, or behavior afterwards. Learning experiences are a way to think about what a learning intervention might be (i. e. Ã¢â¬â its design) in the context of desired end goals and outcomes. This can then inform our choices about how communication channels and modes, learning activities, and resources come together to best support the end goals and outcomes, and also how these channels and activities may evolve over time. Certainly in this context, a learning intervention is something that is much more than what has traditionally been thought of as Ã¢â¬Å"content. Ã¢â¬ In thinking about what is currently thought of as learning content, I think of something akin to a page from. a textbook (that has its doppelganger in web-based training) with which one Ã¢â¬Å"readsÃ¢â¬ and then Ã¢â¬Å"interactsÃ¢â¬ with in some way. That definition of learning content and learner interaction represents a very narrow and limited view of what a learning experience can be and usually limits the type of learning to that of recognizing or memorizing specific facts, procedures, and concepts exemplified in the deployment of web- based, self-directed individual learning experiences commonly called e-learning. Learning content can be thought of much more broadly and inclusively. This could mean that learning content could actually include not only the Ã¢â¬Å"whatsÃ¢â¬ but the Ã¢â¬Å"howsÃ¢â¬ of learning. For example, learning content in the context of learning experiences could contain a collection of specific content resources, content pointers, functional tools or tool pointers, activity descriptions, and assessments that, when brought together, embody a particular pedagogical model. In fact, the reverse could also be learning content Ã¢â¬â a pedagogical model describing the types of learning resources, tools, and activities needed to achieve learning outcomes. So you could think of learning content as collections of pedagogical models and collections of resources that participate in shaping an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s learning experience that are aligned with learning outcomes and positive actions that stem from the experience. Another facet of learning content is the artifacts produced during the learning experience. Besides the description above, learning content models should also be collaborative or cooperative with resources and activities supporting the learners working together to produce a learning artifact. A learning artifact couldÃ be anything based on an authentic learning activity or experience such as a model, computer code, diagram or even the ubiquitous PowerPoint presentation. As these artifacts are created and evaluated during the learning process, they then become learning resources that can be used iteratively for others in similar or more advanced experiences. These ideas allow us to merge knowledge management and single/double loop organizational learning into our concept of learning content. Conceptually, this represents a shift from the typical view of content managed by a typical contentÃ management system, with the assumption that when content is simply presented to a learner that he or she will just Ã¢â¬Å"learnÃ¢â¬ from it Ã¢â¬â that somehow learning (and especially learning to do or understand) is transmitted from the content to the learner. With that view of content and of the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s experience, then itÃ¢â¬â¢s no surprise that critics of the pedagogical merits of SCORM view it as being Ã¢â¬Å"limited. Ã¢â¬ When I think about learning experiences in the context of this effort by ADL, I define them as a model that will allow higher order learning outcomes to be realized. This can occur by expanding on ourÃ understanding of learning content to include specific collections of learning resources, tools, and activities guided by pedagogical models. This is sometimes conceived as a problem-based, collaborative-based approach shaped and tailored to meet specific learning goals but I believe it is even much more than that. Learning experiences as currently being thought of by ADL will be able to provide an interoperable and reusable means for design and/or self organization of learning activities that are pedagogically sound, allowing the attainment, assessment, and tracking of higher order learning outcomes.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Climate Change Impacts On Plankton In Oceans Environmental Sciences Essay Plankton are pelagic organisms as primary production providing food for marine mammals and commercially important fish. However, nowadays, it is widely accepted that global warming is occurring, and it is inevitable to impact on the marine pelagic realm. Any decline or increase in abundance, growth and trophic efficiency of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities will lead to decline or increase in higher tropic levels, even the entire ecosystems. The only way to reduce these effects is to reduce CO2 emissions to atmosphere. Further, the consideration of research should be including long-term changes in plankton biomass and community structure. Plankton are organisms that have limited locomotive ability relative to the water where they live. These organisms are ranging in size from viruses to large jellyfish. In tropical scale, plankton communities are highly diverse, containing organisms from almost all phyla and families. Furthermore, these organisms use their environment, its resources, and each other, in a wide variety of ways. The way to classify planktonic organisms is based on their size, which affects sinking, light utilization, mobility and tropic status. In addition, they have particular functional roles (grazers and nitrogen-fixers) in the ecosystem as well (McKinnon et al. 2007). However, nowadays, more and more marine scientists have paid attention on climate change which has strong impacts on these organisms in the ocean. For example, increased water temperature and ocean acidification have impacts on those tiny organisms in biological and physical ways (Richardson et al. 2004; Riebesell et al. 2000; Beaugrand et al. 2003; Lynam et al. 2005). The role of plankton in the ocean Phytoplankton account for approximately half the global primary production Richardson et al. 2004), and consequently play an important role in cycling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Micro- and Macrozooplankton are the basis of food webs supporting oceanic and many coastal fisheries (Richardson et al. 2004). In addition, they are also playing an important role in linking pelagic and benthic environment (McKinnon et al. 2007). Critical factors regulating plankton communities To date, a number of studies have demonstrated that the abundance and growth of plankton are affected by several climate stressors that will respond to climate change, including water temperature, ocean chemistry, light, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and nutrient enrichment (McKinnon et al. 2007). Although there are still having a limited understanding of how climate change will affect planktonic organisms, more studies have done that trying to find out profound meaning. Vulnerability Planktonic organisms all have short life cycles: hours to days for phytoplankton, seven to ten days for copepods, and weeks to months for macrozooplankton. This means that plankton respond quickly to changes in their physical environment. Therefore, they respond more rapidly than longer-lived animals such as fish, and mammals (McKinnon et al. 2007). Changes in water temperature All plankton are poikilothermic. A number of studies have shown that plankton growth rate, abundance, distribution, and timing of bloom are all influenced by temperature (Beaugrand et al. 2002; Edwards and Richardson 2004; Kirby et al. 2007; Richardson and Schoeman 2004). Besides, studies have shown that plankton species changes in temperature are more likely to directly affect metabolic processes rather than the whole community biomass, especially if plankton communities are resource limited. Moreover, changes in phytoplankton community composition and productivity will have flow-on effects on the productivity of zooplankton grazers (McKinnon et al. 2007). Ocean acidification and increased dissolved CO2 The direct effect of ocean acidification on zooplankton will be to dissolve their shells, increasing shell maintenance costs and reducing growth (Hallegraeff 1984). Furthermore, the declining pH may also change the growth rates of photosynthetic organisms. This means changes in pH will affect nutrient taking and thus alter rates of growth and photosynthesis (McKinnon et al. 2007). Changes may also occur in phytoplankton cell composition, which could affect their nutritional value for higher trophic levels (Richardson et al. 2004). Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) Studies have found that UVR impacts growth, mobility, and the relative dominance of many phytoplanktonic organisms (McKinnon et al. 2007). These effects compromise the ability of phytoplankton to adapt to changing environmental conditions (Hader and Hader 1989; Hader and Liu 1990). They also result in changes in cellular elemental stoichometry including increased cellular carbon content and decreased chlorophyll content (Hessen et al 1997). Further, in large-scale, UVR can cause changes in phytoplankton community structure because small cells are more prone to effects of UVR than large cells, and have comparatively high metabolic costs to screen out damaging UVR (Raven and Gilmartin 1982). Consequently, these negative effects of such changing can propagate to zooplankton (Keller et al. 1997). Linkages with other ecosystem components Some studies have shown that any decline or increase in abundance, growth and trophic efficiency of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities that is influenced by climate change is likely to lead to the decline or increase in higher trophic levels (Hunter 1981; Richardson et al. 2004; McKinnon et al. 2007). For example, fish larvae feed on plankton, and variations in the timing and extent of plankton reproduction could influence patterns of recruitment of fishes and invertebrates (Hunter 1981; Lynam et al. 2005). Management strategies The large-scale oceanographic, weather and climate processes are driving climate change impacting on plankton. Furthermore, due to the enhanced levels of CO2 in the atmosphere and rates of fossil burning, the process of ocean acidification is deterioration inevitable over next several centuries. To re-equilibrate the pH is not practical, and this will take a long time for ocean chemistry to return to a condition before industrial times. The only way to reduce these effects is to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Conclusion The lack of information on the state of specific regions of plankton communities currently hinders biologists from being able to address the impacts of climate changes on those areas. Therefore, in the future, the consideration should be given to the inclusion of more plankton monitoring sites in that specific region to track long-term changes in plankton biomass and community structure, particularly for those few organisms that are at risk from ocean acidification.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Dietrich Bonhoeffer Dietrich Bonhoeffer was born on February 4th 1906, as a son of a professor of psychiatry and neurology at the University of Berlin. Throughout his early life he was an outstanding student, and when he finally reached the age of 25 he became a lecturer in systematic theology at the University Berlin. Something that is very striking is that when Hitler came to power in 1933, Bonhoeffer became a leading spokesman for the Confessing Church, the center of Protestant resistance to the Nazis. He organized and for a shot amount of time he led the underground seminary of the Confessing Church. His book Life Together describes the life of the Christian community in that seminary, and his book The Cost Of Discipleship attacks what he calls "cheap grace," meaning that grace used as an excuse for moral laxity. Bonhoeffer had been taught not to "resist the powers that be," but he came to a conclusion to believe that to do so was sometimes the right choice. In 1939 his brother-in-law introduced him to a group planning the overthrow of Hitler, and he made significant contributions to their work. (Bonhoeffer at this time was an employee of the Military Intelligence Department.) He was later arrested in April of 1943 and imprisoned in Berlin. After the failure of the attempt on Hitler's life in April of 1944, he was first sent to Buchenwald and then to Schoenberg Prison. Bonhoeffer was almost killed, but was lucky as his life was spared, because he had a relative who stood high in the government; but then this relative was himself implicated in anti-Nazi plots. On Sunday 8 Dietrich Bonhoeffer :: Essays Papers Dietrich Bonhoeffer Dietrich Bonhoeffer was born on February 4th 1906, as a son of a professor of psychiatry and neurology at the University of Berlin. Throughout his early life he was an outstanding student, and when he finally reached the age of 25 he became a lecturer in systematic theology at the University Berlin. Something that is very striking is that when Hitler came to power in 1933, Bonhoeffer became a leading spokesman for the Confessing Church, the center of Protestant resistance to the Nazis. He organized and for a shot amount of time he led the underground seminary of the Confessing Church. His book Life Together describes the life of the Christian community in that seminary, and his book The Cost Of Discipleship attacks what he calls "cheap grace," meaning that grace used as an excuse for moral laxity. Bonhoeffer had been taught not to "resist the powers that be," but he came to a conclusion to believe that to do so was sometimes the right choice. In 1939 his brother-in-law introduced him to a group planning the overthrow of Hitler, and he made significant contributions to their work. (Bonhoeffer at this time was an employee of the Military Intelligence Department.) He was later arrested in April of 1943 and imprisoned in Berlin. After the failure of the attempt on Hitler's life in April of 1944, he was first sent to Buchenwald and then to Schoenberg Prison. Bonhoeffer was almost killed, but was lucky as his life was spared, because he had a relative who stood high in the government; but then this relative was himself implicated in anti-Nazi plots. On Sunday 8
Friday, July 19, 2019
Herbert George Wells English author and political philosopher, most famous for his science-fantasy novels with their prophetic depictions of the triumphs of technology as well as the horrors of 20th-century warfare. Wells was born September 21, 1866, in Bromley, Kent, and educated at the Normal School of Science in London, to which he won a scholarship. He worked as a draper's apprentice, bookkeeper, tutor, and journalist until 1895, when he became a full- time writer. Wells's 10-year relationship with Rebecca West produced a son, Anthony West, in 1914. In the next 50 years he produced more than 80 books. His novel The Time Machine mingled science, adventure, and political comment. Later works in this genre are The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds, and The Shape of Things to Come; each of these fantasies was made into a motion picture. Wells also wrote novels devoted to character delineation. Among these are Kipps and The History of Mr. Polly, which depict members of the lower m iddle class and their aspirations. Both recall the world of Wells's youth; the first tells the story of a struggling teacher, the second portrays a draper's assistant. Many of Wells's other books can be categorized as thesis novels. Among these are Ann Veronica, promoting women's rights; Tono-Bungay, attacking irresponsible capitalists; and Mr. Britling Sees It Through, depicting the average Englishman's reaction to war. After World War I Wells wrote an immensely popular historical work, The Outline of History. Throughout his long life Wells was deeply concerned with and wrote voluminously about the survival of contemporary society. For a time he was a member of the Fabian Society. He envisioned a utopia in which the vast and frightening material forces available to modern men and women would be rationally controlled for progress and for the equal good of all.
China is famous throughout history for both Tieneman square, and capitol punishment . These are each examples of human rights violations. Communist China's one child policy Is yet another example. China's one child policy was stared in 1979 as an attempt to solve their overpopulation problem. The policy states that every couple in China is allowed only one child. In order for a couple to have a child they must first have a birth coupon issued by the government before giving birth to the child. "Birth Quotas" are determined in order to have surveillance of the people who have all ready had their single child allowed to them born. The women of China must deal with their menstrual cycle being monitored publicly to stop the possibility of having a second child. They also must face pelvic examinations if they are even suspected of being impregnated. Any unauthoized pregnancies are terminated by an aboution regardless of the pregnancies progression. Graphically, The baby's head is crushed and then pulled out of the woman, just to name one of the many grusome abortion practices, killing the baby, and torturing the woman. The Chinese law has horrible effect's on the country's major population. Many Infant's are abandoned, or brutally killed at home to cut down upon expenses and fines issued by the government. In 1993 ultrasound machines were in mas importation to China, however in 1993 the use of these machines ...
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Whether or not exposure to media violence causes increased levels of aggression and violence in young people is the perennial question of media effects research. Some experts, like University of Michigan professor L. Rowell Huesmann, argue that fifty years of evidence show Ã¢â¬Å"that exposure to media violence causes children to behave more aggressively and affects them as adults years later. Others, like Jonathan Freedman of the University of Toronto, maintain that Ã¢â¬Å"the scientific evidence simply does not show that watching violence either produces violence in people, or desensitizes them to it. Ã¢â¬ Many Studies, Many Conclusions Andrea Martinez at the University of Ottawa conducted a comprehensive review of the scientific literature for the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) in 1994. She concluded that the lack of consensus about media effects reflects three Ã¢â¬Å"grey areasÃ¢â¬ or constraints contained in the research itself.First, me dia violence is notoriously hard to define and measure. Some experts who track violence in television programming, such as George Gerbner of Temple University, define violence as the act (or threat) of injuring or killing someone, independent of the method used or the surrounding context. Accordingly, Gerber includes cartoon violence in his data-set. But others, such as University of Laval professors Guy Paquette and Jacques de Guise, specifically exclude cartoon violence from their research because of its comical and unrealistic presentation.Second, researchers disagree over the type of relationship the data supports. Some argue that exposure to media violence causes aggression. Others say that the two are associated, but that there is no causal connection. (That both, for instance, may be caused by some third factor. ) And others say the data supports the conclusion that there is no relationship between the two at all. Third, even those who agree that there is a connection between media violence and aggression disagree about how the one effects the other.Some say that the mechanism is a psychological one, rooted in the ways we learn. For example, Huesmann argues that children develop Ã¢â¬Å"cognitive scriptsÃ¢â¬ that guide their own behaviour by imitating the actions of media heroes. As they watch violent shows, children learn to internalize scripts that use violence as an appropriate method of problem-solving. Other researchers argue that it is the physiological effects of media violence that cause aggressive behaviour. Exposure to violent imagery is linked to increased heart rate, faster respiration and higher blood pressure.Some think that this simulated Ã¢â¬Å"fight-or-flightÃ¢â¬ response predisposes people to act aggressively in the real world. Still others focus on the ways in which media violence primes or cues pre-existing aggressive thoughts and feelings. They argue that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to strike out is justified by media images in which both the hero and the villain use violence to seek revenge, often without consequences. In her final report to the CRTC, Martinez concluded that most studies support Ã¢â¬Å"a positive, though weak, relation between exposure to television violence and aggressive behaviour. Although that relationship cannot be Ã¢â¬Å"confirmed systematically,Ã¢â¬ she agrees with Dutch researcher Tom Van der Voot who argues that it would be illogical to conclude that Ã¢â¬Å"a phenomenon does not exist simply because it is found at times not to occur, or only to occur under certain circumstances. Ã¢â¬ What the Researchers Are Saying The lack of consensus about the relationship between media violence and real-world aggression has not impeded ongoing research.HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a sampling of conclusions drawn to date, from the various research strands: Research strand: Children who consume high levels ofÃ media violence are more likely to be aggressive in the real world In 1956, researchers to ok to the laboratory to compare the behaviour of 24 children watching TV. Half watched a violent episode of the cartoon Woody Woodpecker, and the other 12 watched the non-violent cartoon The Little Red Hen. During play afterwards, the researchers observed that the children who watched the violent cartoon were much more likely to hit other children and break toys.Six years later, in 1963, professors A. Badura, D. Ross and S. A. Ross studied the effect of exposure to real-world violence, television violence, and cartoon violence. They divided 100 preschool children into four groups. The first group watched a real person shout insults at an inflatable doll while hitting it with a mallet. The second group watched the incident on television. The third watched a cartoon version of the same scene, and the fourth watched nothing. When all the children were later exposed to a frustrating ituation, the first three groups responded with more aggression than the control group. The children who watched the incident on television were just as aggressive as those who had watched the real person use the mallet; and both were more aggressive than those who had only watched the cartoon. Over the years, laboratory experiments such as these have consistently shown that exposure to violence is associated with increased heartbeat, blood pressure and respiration rate, and a greater willingness to administer electric shocks to inflict pain or punishment on others.However, this line of enquiry has been criticized because of its focus on short term results and the artificial nature of the viewing environment. Other scientists have sought to establish a connection between media violence and aggression outside the laboratory. For example, a number of surveys indicate that children and young people who report a preference for violent entertainment also score higher on aggression indexes than those who watch less violent shows. L. Rowell Huesmann reviewed studies conducted in Australia, Fi nland, Poland, Israel, Netherlands and the United States.He reports, Ã¢â¬Å"the child most likely to be aggressive would be the one who (a) watches violent television programs most of the time, (b) believes that these shows portray life just as it is, [and] (c) identifies strongly with the aggressive characters in the shows. Ã¢â¬ A study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation in 2003 found that nearly half (47 per cent) of parents with children between the ages of 4 and 6 report that their children have imitated aggressive behaviours from TV.However, it is interesting to note that children are more likely to mimic positive behaviours Ã¢â¬â 87 per cent of kids do so. Recent research is exploring the effect of new media on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. Craig Anderson and Brad Bushman of Iowa State University reviewed dozens of studies of video gamers. In 2001, they reported that children and young people who play violent video games, even for short periods, are more likely to behave aggressively in the real world; and that both aggressive and non-aggressive children are negatively affected by playing.In 2003, Craig Anderson and Iowa State University colleague Nicholas Carnagey and Janie Eubanks of the Texas Department of Human Services reported that violent music lyrics increased aggressive thoughts and hostile feelings among 500 college students. They concluded, Ã¢â¬Å"There are now good theoretical and empirical reasons to expect effects of music lyrics on aggressive behavior to be similar to the well-studied effects of exposure to TV and movie violence and the more recent research efforts on violent video games. Research Strand: Children who watch high levels of media violence are at increased risk of aggressive behaviour as adults In 1960, University of Michigan Professor Leonard Eron studied 856 grade three students living in a semi-rural community in Columbia County, New York, and found that the children who watched violent television at home behav ed more aggressively in school. Eron wanted to track the effect of this exposure over the years, so he revisited Columbia County in 1971, when the children who participated in the 1960 study were 19 years of age.He found that boys who watched violent TV when they were eight were more likely to get in trouble with the law as teenagers. When Eron and Huesmann returned to Columbia County in 1982, the subjects were 30 years old. They reported that those participants who had watched more violent TV as eight-year-olds were more likely, as adults, to be convicted of serious crimes, to use violence to discipline their children, and to treat their spouses aggressively. Professor Monroe Lefkowitz published similar findings in 1971.Lefkowitz interviewed a group of eight-year-olds and found that the boys who watched more violent TV were more likely to act aggressively in the real world. When he interviewed the same boys ten years later, he found that the more violence a boy watched at eight, th e more aggressively he would act at age eighteen. Columbia University professor Jeffrey Johnson has found that the effect is not limited to violent shows. Johnson tracked 707 families in upstate New York for 17 years, starting in 1975.In 2002, Johnson reported that children who watched one to three hours of television each day when they were 14 to 16 years old were 60 per cent more likely to be involved in assaults and fights as adults than those who watched less TV. Kansas State University professor John Murray concludes, Ã¢â¬Å"The most plausible interpretation of this pattern of correlations is that early preference for violent television programming and other media is one factor in the production of aggressive and antisocial behavior when the young boy becomes a young man. However, this line of research has attracted a great deal of controversy. Pullitzer Prize-winning author Richard Rhodes has attacked EronÃ¢â¬â¢s work, arguing that his conclusions are based on an insignifica nt amount of data. Rhodes claims that Eron had information about the amount of TV viewed in 1960 for only 3 of the 24 men who committed violent crimes as adults years later. Rhodes concludes that EronÃ¢â¬â¢s work is Ã¢â¬Å"poorly conceived, scientifically inadequate, biased and sloppy if not actually fraudulent research. Guy Cumberbatch, head of the Communications Research Group, a U. K. social policy think tank, has equally harsh words for JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s study. Cumberbatch claims JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s group of 88 under-one-hour TV watchers is Ã¢â¬Å"so small, it's aberrant. Ã¢â¬ And, as journalist Ben Shouse points out, other critics say that JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s study Ã¢â¬Å"canÃ¢â¬â¢t rule out the possibility that television is just a marker for some unmeasured environmental or psychological influence on both aggression and TV habits. Research Strand: The introduction of television into a community leads to an increase in violent behaviour Researchers have also pursued the link b etween media violence and real life aggression by examining communities before and after the introduction of television. In the mid 1970s, University of British Columbia professor Tannis McBeth Williams studied a remote village in British Columbia both before and after television was introduced. She found that two years after TV arrived, violent incidents had increased by 160 per cent.Researchers Gary Granzberg and Jack Steinbring studied three Cree communities in northern Manitoba during the 1970s and early 1980s. They found that four years after television was introduced into one of the communities, the incidence of fist fights and black eyes among the children had increased significantly. Interestingly, several days after an episode of Happy Days aired, in which one character joined a gang called the Red Demons, children in the community created rival gangs, called the Red Demons and the Green Demons, and the conflict between the two seriously disrupted the local school.Universit y of Washington Professor Brandon Centerwall noted that the sharp increase in the murder rate in North America in 1955 occurred eight years after television sets began to enter North American homes. To test his hypothesis that the two were related, he examined the murder rate in South Africa where, prior to 1975, television was banned by the government. He found that twelve years after the ban was lifted, murder rates skyrocketed. University of Toronto Professor Jonathan Freedman has criticized this line of research.He points out that Japanese television has some of the most violent imagery in the world, and yet Japan has a much lower murder rate than other countries, including Canada and the United States, which have comparatively less violence on TV. Research Strand: Media violence stimulates fear in some children A number of studies have reported that watching media violence frightens young children, and that the effects of this may be long lasting. In 1998, Professors Singer, Sl ovak, Frierson and York surveyed 2,000 Ohio students in grades three through eight.They report that the incidences of psychological trauma (including anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress) increased in proportion to the number of hours of television watched each day. A 1999 survey of 500 Rhode Island parents led by Brown University professor Judith Owens revealed that the presence of a television in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s bedroom makes it more likely that the child will suffer from sleep disturbances. Nine per cent of all the parents surveyed reported that their children have nightmares because of a television show at least once a week.Tom Van der Voort studied 314 children aged nine through twelve in 1986. He found that although children can easily distinguish cartoons, westerns and spy thrillers from reality, they often confuse realistic programmes with the real world. When they are unable to integrate the violence in these shows because they canÃ¢â¬â¢t follow the plot, they a re much more likely to become anxious. This is particularly problematic because the children reported that they prefer realistic programmes, which they equate with fun and excitement.And, as Jacques de Guise reported in 2002, the younger the child, the less likely he or she will be able to identify violent content as violence. In 1999, Professors Joanne Cantor and K. Harrison studied 138 university students, and found that memories of frightening media images continued to disturb a significant number of participants years later. Over 90 per cent reported they continued to experience fright effects from images they viewed as children, ranging from sleep disturbances to steadfast avoidance of certain situations.Research Strand: Media violence desensitizes people to real violence A number of studies in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s showed that people who are repeatedly exposed to media violence tend to be less disturbed when they witness real world violence, and have less sympathy for its victims. For example, Professors V. B. Cline, R. G. Croft, and S. Courrier studied young boys over a two-year period. In 1973, they reported that boys who watch more than 25 hours of television per week are significantly less likely to be aroused by real world violence than those boys who watch 4 hours or less per week.When researchers Fred Molitor and Ken Hirsch revisited this line of investigation in 1994, their work confirmed that children are more likely to tolerate aggressive behaviour in the real world if they first watch TV shows or films that contain violent content. Research Strand: People who watch a lot of media violence tend to believe that the world is more dangerous than it is in reality George Gerbner has conducted the longest running study of television violence. His seminal research suggests that heavy TV viewers tend to perceive the world in ways that are consistent with the images on TV.As viewersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions of the world come to conform with the depictions they s ee on TV, they become more passive, more anxious, and more fearful. Gerbner calls this the Ã¢â¬Å"Mean World Syndrome. Ã¢â¬ GerbnerÃ¢â¬â¢s research found that those who watch greater amounts of television are more likely to: * overestimate their risk of being victimized by crime * believe their neighbourhoods are unsafe * believe Ã¢â¬Å"fear of crime is a very serious personal problemÃ¢â¬ * assume the crime rate is increasing, even when it is not Andre Gosselin, Jacques de Guise and Guy Paquette decided to test GerbnerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory in the Canadian context in 1997.They surveyed 360 university students, and found that heavy television viewers are more likely to believe the world is a more dangerous place. However, they also found heavy viewers are not more likely to actually feel more fearful. Research Strand: Family attitudes to violent content are more important than the images themselves A number of studies suggest that media is only one of a number of variables that put children at risk of aggressive behaviour.For example, a Norwegian study that included 20 at-risk teenaged boys found that the lack of parental rules regulating what the boys watched was a more significant predictor of aggressive behaviour than the amount of media violence they watched. It also indicated that exposure to real world violence, together with exposure to media violence, created an Ã¢â¬Å"overloadÃ¢â¬ of violent events. Boys who experienced this overload were more likely to use violent media images to create and consolidate their identities as members of an anti-social and marginalized group.On the other hand, researchers report that parental attitudes towards media violence can mitigate the impact it has on children. Huesmann and Bacharach conclude, Ã¢â¬Å"Family attitudes and social class are stronger determinants of attitudes toward aggression than is the amount of exposure to TV, which is nevertheless a significant but weaker predictor. Ã¢â¬ Undoubtedly that th e media has an effect on our lives. The debate that rages is whether or not the media has a negative and discernible effect on us as human beings. How much does the media effect out actions, our houghts, our decisions and, in general, our lives? We live in a society which praises individuality and freedom, and therefore to most people it is a scary thought that an outside source, such as the media, has such a large effect on our lives, and therefore it is no surprise that most people do not believe that the media has a strong effect on them. But when it comes to children, the debate becomes more personal. It is common knowledge that children are very impressionable, and that the people they meet, their parents, and teachers can have a huge impact in the lives of Children.I myself can attribute much of my current interests and behavior to the effect my parents had on my when I was a child. Today, though, many children are in poor families (the child poverty rate in America is now aro und 35%), and, as a result, many children often do not have parents that reside at home. Often both parents work long hours, and the children have nothing else to occupy their time except for the media, especially television media. How does what the child sees on TV effect his or her behavior?The real question that faces society is does the increasing amount of violence and sex on TV effect children? My personal opinion is that violence and sex in the media greatly effects a child's development. The amount of sex and violence on TV today dwarfs what was on when I was little. Does a day not pass when their is a story about a child killing another child, or an even younger girl becoming pregnant? When I go an elementary or middle school I am shocked at the types of clothing that the children wear, and the way that they talk and act.Even elementary school children know about things that I did not learn about till I was in High School, and in my opinion things they should not know ab Ki ndergarten teachers in many school across the country, often in poor immigrant neighborhoods, no longer get to deal with innocent, wide eyed six year olds, but instead have to become conflict resolvers between children who see violence and intimidation as the only way to solve any problems. Teachers and Parents cannot compete with television.A study by the Mediascope Institute found that many children have already, by age six, spent more time watching TV than time they will spend talking to their fathers in their entire lifetime. Dean Geoffrey Cowan spoke in class about how the media does not effect everyone uniformly. He said that the effects of violence in the media may be stronger on some individuals than others, but that this effect is still significant. I agree with Dean Cowan, and I want to add that this effect is stronger in younger children than in any other age group.Many students in the class did not seem to believe that the media had a very strong effect on their lives an d as a result seem to assume that this effect is uniformly weak, and unfortunately I believe that it is thinking like that is making it so difficult for us as a society to tackle this problem. Studies have shown that the effect of violence in the media on children can be small, leading to more violent behavior in maybe 15% of children. But other studies have shown that this effect can be greater when children are Ã¢â¬Å"raised by the mediaÃ¢â¬ .It is hard to say whether a certain child will become more violent or aggressive due to the media, and I believe that other factors contribute to violence in children, such as problems at home, the influence of peers, or lack of a positive source of morals. But as a society we need to make sure that there are options for children in the media so that they do not have to exposed to so much mature content, and I believe that currently the protections in place are terribly inadequate. The effects of our modern media on our children is somethin g that we will not truly know for many years, if ever.History might give us a clue Ã¢â¬â the parallels between the advent of todays new media and the advent of books show that we could be in for a paradigm societal change. But no other media absorbed ones life in such a passive, complacent way as television and the Internet do to thousands of children. More research needs to be done in this field, but I believe that it is self apparent to everyone that the media does have a large impact on our lives. We determine our identity in relation to the media Ã¢â¬â our favorite television show, favorite band, favorite book, all are determined by the media to some extent.Ideally, as adults we would learn the skills to discern the effect of media on our lives and learn to control and to resist its temptations. Unfortunately most children and too many adults have not learn these skills. Everyone agrees that in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, television has a significant impact on us all. How it a ffects children is of primary concern, as it is in childhood that we are given the tools we need to become successful, respectful citizens as adults. How exactly does television impact childhood, and what should we do to ensure that that impact is a positive one?Television is one of the first ways in which children learn about gender roles and stereotypes. Although family and peer groups also teach these roles, it is through television that children are inundated with the sex roles and stereotypes that reflect the ideas of a handful of people in charge of creating and programming this medium. Although these portrayals have broadened in the last ten or so years to include more diversity in gender stereotyping, there are still many television icons that denote negative gender images, such as the Bratz.Bratz are a Saturday morning cartoon and a glut of heavily marketed toys and clothing products that represent tweens and early teens as overly sexualized independent young women with att itude. Although I admire the strength and empowerment they embody, I am also incredibly concerned with the revealing clothing, heavy makeup, and defensive postures the characters all seem to take. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t help but wonder what a ten-year-old watching these girls would take away as being the feminine traits that they represent.Will she want to identify with the strength and independence or with the heavy-handed sexuality that she sees? Add to that televisionÃ¢â¬â¢s fascination with glamorous girl icons such as Brittney Spears and Paris Hilton, and what are young girls supposed to believe about being a girl? Boys likewise have macho images to imitateÃ¢â¬âsuperheroes and wrestlers and sports heroes. What does that teach them about being male? How does the repetition of these images teach boys how to respect others, cooperate, and engage with those around them?These problems with televisionÃ¢â¬â¢s sex and gender stereotypes can only make it more difficult for these children to develop socially and emotionally. Being taught these gender stereotypes may make it almost impossible for some children to break out of those roles and become comfortable with all their traits and individualities. If a boy is taught by television that men are always strong, what does he do with his own characteristics that defy that stereotypeÃ¢â¬âdoes he continue to build his nurturing qualities or quash them in an effort to fit in?Do children learn that relationships only work when both people are behaving according to televisionÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas of their gender stereotypes, or do children learn to accept and respect people along the entire continuum of gender traits? If children are lost in this quagmire of conflicting information about who they should be and how they should act, clearly they will not be able to develop the strong self-esteem they need to be successful, either at school or in relationships. There is a strong bond between all three of these developmental area s.There are lots of arguments made that television is a bane to the moral development of children. Violent television, especially, has been examined in over 1000 studies and reviews, and has been found guilty on the charges of increasing fear and aggression in children who watch too much violent. However, in many shows and in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s programming especially, morality is key, with the entire story line being written around one characterÃ¢â¬â¢s moral dilemma and the healthy resolution of that dilemma, offering children a way to see how morality works in action in ways that apply to their lives.Cognitively, there is some ambiguity of the impact of television. There is the argument that television is responsible for the Ã¢â¬Å"dumbing downÃ¢â¬ of America, that television is responsible for shutting down our brains and acting as a tranquilizer. But there are also a great many good educational and instructional shows that teach children interactively in ways that books simpl y cannot, and a perceptive look at television programs today verses those created twenty years ago reveals that shows have actually gotten more complex, with layers of storytelling and subtle nuances that audiences have to work harder to comprehend.Clearly, television is a powerful tool that can alter a childÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas about the world. How those ideas change and how the child changes in response demonstrate how the tool was used. Television can be detrimental to childhood; in fact, too much television watching is strongly correlated with childhood obesity. The time spent in front of the television could often be better spent in other waysÃ¢â¬âwith friends, actively playing, or doing homeworkÃ¢â¬âand this often has negative consequences for the child, such as poor relationships or worse performance in school content. However, television watching can also be productive for children.Television can offer children the chance to see other parts of the world and other cultures w ithout having to leave home. ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s educational programs and documentaries can teach them about animals, science, math, readingÃ¢â¬âjust about any subject the child has an interest in. The key to making the time spent watching television rewarding is the manner in which it is done. If parents take the time to choose carefully the programs they want their children to watch, and then sit down and watch the show with them, asking questions to promote understanding, then that time is highly beneficial for the child.However, if parents donÃ¢â¬â¢t take the time to choose the childÃ¢â¬â¢s programs and just sit Junior down and let the television act as babysitter, then the time spent watching television will not only probably not teach that child new things, but he will also not be participating in the powerful social interaction he craves. In a 2001 article in The Nation, author Maggie Cutler makes the point that although television viewing is a rite of passage for Americ an kids today, parents need to remember Ã¢â¬Å"the rule of the realÃ¢â¬ : that real life is always more powerful. A real conversation is always better for children than watching one on television.Parents donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to go to the extreme of keeping their children from watching television completely; they just have to keep in mind moderation and attention is best. For parents, the question of whether or not to let a child watch television is like the question of whether or not to let a child eat at McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. There are potentially good and bad effects of each, and both decisions weigh on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s health. A cheeseburger and fries every once in awhile wonÃ¢â¬â¢t do any lasting damage; nor will an hour of cartoons just for entertainment every now and then.However, a menu with little more than that will cause grave damage to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development physically, emotionally, cognitively, and socially. Negative Impact of Television on Children something with pl ay Ã¢â¬â dough. Since there is no scope for imaginative games in the lives of busy parents television seems to be the most inexpensive way of filling the gap and playing the role of an ideal baby sitter. Watching WWF fights, is on the other hand watching a show full of thumps, knocks, hurting an opponent, and jumping on senselessly. This program clearly sends out the message that Ã¢â¬Ëfighting is fun'.If children are constantly brought up in front of a television then reading habits are not instilled in them, and they are not encouraged to participate in outdoor activities. Only the world of television is their own private world. Of course when television replaces human companionship there is also a good chance of the child being influenced by it. Young children cannot process the information which they are imparted by the television, same way as adults. They think that whatever they are watching is true and this may lead to the corruption of their minds if too much violence is viewed by them.Parents should take strict action so they can limit the negative impact of television as much as possible. They should set rules as to what should be watched and what should be avoided. Alternative to television should be provided, for example if a parent starts spending more time with the child, reads books with him or her, indulge in creative games and indoor crafts, there is every possibility that the child will start shunning television for the better means of entertainment provided. To end it, I say that parents attitude towards the children acts as the building block of their futures.