Sunday, December 29, 2019

The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down - 1993 Words

The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down It is difficult enough to go to the emergency ward with a family member and speak the same language as the staff. The admitting nurse wants all insurance information, another nurse/secretary asks for injury/illness history and, meanwhile, the person who needs to see the doctor is waiting in pain. The stress mounts and communication becomes harder. Now, take that same scenario when someone in the ER does not speak the language or know the culture of the patient. It not only severely complicates the process, but endangers the person needing the care. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Anne Fadiman is the tragedy about three-month-old Lia Lee, from Laos, who unfortunately was one of these†¦show more content†¦It appears that the California educational system understands the need for enhancing cultural understanding. This is a positive sign in education. Interest in the subject of cultural and linguistic competency is beginning to reach the â€Å"tipping point† ( Gladwell, 2002). Over the past two decades, there has been an â€Å"explosion† of interest in developing programs that meet the general, mental and oral health, as well as social service needs of the country’s increasingly diverse population. Cultural and linguistic competence initiatives are underway at the systems, organizational, and clinical levels in a variety of institutions. A growing number of federal agencies, foundations, and private organizations are supporting innovative educational, research, and service delivery services. The U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), for example, has Centers for Excellence (COEs) that use a curriculum guide for integrating cultural and linguistic competency content, methods and evaluation into existing academic programs (HRSA, 2005). However, changes in the medical field are going more slowly. According to an article by Metzyl and Poirier (2004), medical humanities programs now promote awareness of the soc ial aspects of medicine, and the Association of American Medical Colleges instituted cultural competencies for clinical interaction for the training of medical students. However, these authors say, â€Å"current efforts to impart understandings of theShow MoreRelatedThe Spirit Catches You And You Fall Down1888 Words   |  8 Pagesan example of culture. Authors Anne Fadiman and Joshua Reno explores the different aspects of culture and ethnography in their two books, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures, and Waste Away: Working and Living with a North American Landfill. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down illustrates the story of a Hmong child who has sever epilepsy, and the communication and cultural differences and challenges between western doctorsRead MoreThe Spirit Catches You And You Fall Down2167 Words   |  9 PagesStructural Causes of Cultural Insensitivity in Anne Fadiman’s The Spiri t Catches You and You Fall Down Many years ago, an epileptic Hmong girl named Lia Lee entered a permanent vegetative state due to cross-cultural misunderstanding between her parents and her doctors. An author named Anne Fadiman documented this case and tried to untangle what exactly went wrong with the situation. Two key players in her narrative were Neil Ernst and Peggy Philp, the main doctors on Lia’s case. As Fadiman describesRead MoreThe Spirit Catches You And You Fall Down1004 Words   |  5 Pages1.) The book that I chose for my book report is, The spirit catches you and you fall down. The book was written by essayist and reporter, Ann Fadiman and was published in 1997 by Farrar, Straus and Giroux. There are 288 pages in this book. 2.) The book is non-fiction. 3.) When I was choosing a book, I was in utter confusion. I wasn t a reader and I didn t know where to look. Luckily, however, Professor Yanmei was able to show me this amazing book! 4.) There were many characters in this book, butRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Spirit Catches You And You Fall Down Essay1527 Words   |  7 PagesThe English translation of the Hmong phrase â€Å"quag dab peg† is that the spirit catches you and you fall down. While western society knows this as epilepsy, the Hmong believe that the seizures are caused by the presence of a â€Å"dab† or soul stealing spirit, which leads the soul to leave the body.1 The Hmong consider those who suffer from epilepsy to be respectable and of a higher status. In The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, the doctors and the Hmong are looking for a solution to the same problem;Read MoreCultural Diversity In The Spirit Catches You And You Fall Down1549 Words   |  7 Pages Cultural Diversity What happens when two very different or even mutually exclusive cultural perspective are forced into contact with one another? In Anne Fadiman’s The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, there is a division between the shamanistic insubordinate cultural of Hmong refugees in Merced, California and the cold analytical approach of western medicine. In the early 1980s, the child of a Hmong refugee family in Merced, California is born with epilepsy, her name is Lia Lee. Anne FadimanRead MoreThe Spirit Catches You As You Fall Down By Anne Fadiman1688 Words   |  7 PagesThe book, The spirit Catches you as you Fall Down by Anne Fadiman follows the life of a Hmong family living in the city of Merced California after fleeing their home in Laos due to persecution. The main focus of the book is a little girl named Lia Lee who suffers tragedy in her life at a very young age. The book illustrates the differences between the healing methods, or medical procedures between the western cult ure and the Hmong culture, and how if affected Lia and her family as she grew up. TheRead More The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Anne Fadiman Essay1868 Words   |  8 PagesThe Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Anne Fadiman is about the cross-cultural ethics in medicine. The book is about a small Hmong child named Lia Lee, who had epilepsy. Epilepsy is called, quag dab peg1 in the Hmong culture that translates to the spirit catches you and you fall down. In the Hmong culture this illness is sign of distinction and divinity, because most Hmong epileptics become shaman, or as the Hmong call them, txiv neeb2. These shamans are special people imbued with healing spiritsRead MoreThe Spirit Catches You And You Fall Down Essay1566 Words   |  7 PagesThe book titled The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: Talks about a Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures written by Anne Fadiman. Anne Fadiman is an American essayist and reporter, who int erests include literary journalism. She is a champion of the National Book Critics Circle Award for Nonfiction, the Salon Book Award, and the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for Current Interest. In the book, Anne Fadiman explores the clash between a county hospital in CaliforniaRead MoreThe Spirit Catches You And You Fall Down1273 Words   |  6 PagesThe United States is known for its melting pot of cultures, which creates one of the most contentious issues in the medical world which is the clash of cultures. The book we read â€Å"The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down† is a great example of how a miss communication and struggle between cultures which lead to a very dismal end. The difference in beliefs cause constant issues in communication, even though both want what is best. Lia Lee was born into a Hmong refugee family with very bad epilepsyRead MoreThe Spirit Catches You And You Fall Down968 Words   |  4 PagesResponse to The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down â€Å"Medicine was religion. Religion was society. Society was medicine† (Fadiman, 1997). To the Hmong’s, this is a way of life. Everything in their culture is interrelated and represents a holistic view. As Americans, we try to incorporate the holistic approach into our health care system, but heavily rely on medications and science to treat illness. Arthur Kelinman developed the explanatory model of illness which incorporates a series of questions

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Notes On The Ciara - 954 Words

Ciara leaned back and smirked. â€Å"Did you not eat supper, Thom?† He laughed, â€Å"It was a choice between eating or bathing. Call it presumptuous of me.† â€Å"Very,† she said before walking over to her corner study. When she returned, she carried an apple. She held it out to him in the palm of her hand. He smiled, â€Å"I am sensing a pattern here, my Lady.† â€Å"Call it symbolic.† She fluttered her eyelashes, the glare from the fire glinting in her amber eyes. â€Å"Maybe of where we came from. Where we’re going.† He took the apple and bit into it heartily, juice dripped on to his beard from the sweet, crisp flesh. â€Å"And where are we going, my Lady?† He asked between bites before taking one last chunk of flesh and placing the core on the mantle. She grabbed his hand and led him wordlessly towards the bed. â€Å"Well I--† he managed to stutter before she placed her finger on his lips and then to her own tasting the apple juice recovered with her tongue. He stood with his knees against the soft edge of the bed. Ciara threw the plump Orlesian pillows to the side and kneeled on the bed facing him. She ran her hand down his torso to the waistband of his pants. She tugged at the fastenings until they came loose. She grabbed his hand again and kissed it, â€Å"I have missed you,† she said. â€Å"You smell nice, and as it turns out, your presumptions were correct.† He reached out and ran his hand down the side of her face, his thumb brushing over her warm cheek. â€Å"I am glad you like it.† â€Å"It smells likeShow MoreRelatedBullying on the Rise Essay1058 Words   |  5 Pagesdaughter’s aunt, Ciara, reminds me a lot of my friend. She developed early, is a bit over weight, wears glasses, and is more intellectual than most her age. This school year has been the worst on her for bullying, which began in the first grade. She began to alter her look, dressing different, wanting her hair done a certain way, even wanting to go on a diet. After digging into the reason a little deeper, her mother discovered notes being written to Ciara allegedly from a boy who liked her. Ciara was receivingRead MoreCase Analysis : The Charter Of Rights And Freedoms 931 Words   |  4 Pagesbother with authorization from the elected division to send their remote-controlled gadgets undetermined. At this moment in Canada we don t have any laws that direct recreational automatons, particularly, particularly as far as security, says Ciara Bracken-Roche, a Phd competitor at Queen s University, Kingston, Ont., and part of its Surveillance Studies Center. Yet in the meantime, she says, In case you re inside your tenth floor condominium and an automaton flies outside your window andRead MoreImportant Components Of The Research Process1467 Words   |  6 Pagesthat many vital components of the research process require some level of writing skills. As outlined by Ms. Ciara Azam who was a researcher in the field of nanotechnology, these are three components of research which rely wholly on writing at some point in their production, each of which were vital to her working effectively with her team. They are, writing formal proposals, taking lab notes, and publishing papers. These three tasks happen in chronological order, which may not be particularly surprisingRead MoreEssay on The Three Modes of Persuasion: Socrates Apology1331 Words   |  6 PagesCiara Watson The Three Modes of Persuasion: Socrates’ Apology In speaking of effective rhetorical persuasion, we must appeal to our target audience in a way that will get them to accept or act upon the point of view we are trying to portray. Aristotle said that we persuade others by three means: (1) by the appeal to their reason (logos); (2) by the appeal to their emotions (pathos); and (3) by the appeal of our personality or character (ethos) (Corbett and Connors 32). When Socrates, an infamousRead MoreHills Like White Elephants1354 Words   |  5 Pageselephant in the room. This is because Jig and the American both know the problem is present, yet neither wish to speak of it. The elephant spoken of in the title symbolizes the elephant in the room; the silent fact that Jig is carrying a baby. On another note, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the expressional term white elephant means â€Å"something that requires a lot of care and money and that gives little profit or enjoyment.† One meaning behind the symbol of the white e lephant references inRead MoreDescriptive Essay About School1954 Words   |  8 Pagesat the front of the class and waits for everyone to be quiet. After a few minutes, he finally starts talking. â€Å"Hello, everyone! My name is Mr. Greene. You may recognize me as last year’s student teacher. I came around to a few classes, took a few notes,† He said, waiting for a reply. Nothing. â€Å"How was this guy in college last year?† I whisper to myself. Once it was clear that not a single student remembered him, he continued, â€Å"You may also recognize me as the part-time manager of the Hobby Lobby

Friday, December 13, 2019

Communism vs. Fascism Free Essays

Communism vs. Fascism Communism and fascism are at the opposite ends of the totalitarian spectrum. Their major differences lie in their economic and social characteristics, but they do share many similarities in the political aspect. We will write a custom essay sample on Communism vs. Fascism or any similar topic only for you Order Now Soviet communism and German fascism are, in fact, very unlike each other, but they affected the people of the Soviet Union and Germany in many similar ways. You can observe how the ideas of communism and fascism differ mainly through their goals, along with other characteristics. Communism pursues international goals, which is shown in Stalin’s strive to push the Soviet Union to be a leading economic power. Fascist leaders pursue goals limited to their own nation. A communist society pushes have no social classes, which is why private ownership of land or property is not supported. Contrarily, fascism is very much class-based, as seen in Hitler’s views of race superiority. Though the goals of these two governmental systems differ very much, the methods used to achieve these goals are remarkably similar. The similarities between communism and fascism lie in their political methods. The most obvious comparison is that they are both dictatorial, one-party governments. Under each government, citizens are expected to be entirely devoted to the state, which glorifies military and war. Their rights are virtually nonexistent, and the media information they see is censored so that they only are aware of what the government wants them to know. In Germany, citizens that didn’t fit the ideal image of the dictator, Adolf Hitler, were sent to concentration or death camps, mainly because the state had the power to do so. Though the ideas and goals of communism and fascism contrast, the methods they use to achieve them are almost identical. Generally, communism and fascism are considered opposite in reference to totalitarianism. They are very different in their economic and social aspects, but they do share similarities in their political characteristics and governing methods. Soviet communism and German fascism are very contrastable, but they affected the people of the Soviet Union and Germany in many similar ways. How to cite Communism vs. Fascism, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Coffee vs Tea free essay sample

Caffeine may reduce the risk of Parkinson’s disease at least in men by enhancing the supply of dopamine. Coffee powder is made out of coffee beans. The high oxidant capacity of tea reduces the risk of cancer for habitual tea drinkers. Tea reduces the  cholesterol levels, inhibits  blood clots  and protects heart by relaxing the blood vessels. Caffeine content and effects Tea: Tea has approximately 55 milligrams of caffeine per cup. We will write a custom essay sample on Coffee vs Tea or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Various teas contain different amounts of caffeine. Green tea contains the least, about one-third the caffeine as black and oolong about two-thirds as much. The caffeine in tea is said to increase concentration, and enhance the sense of taste and smell. The effect of caffeine in tea usually takes longer to enter the  blood  stream than coffee therefore, seems gentler to the system. About 80% of the caffeine in black tea can be removed easily at home Coffee: Coffee has approximately 125-185 milligrams of caffeine per cup. The caffeine in coffee is sometimes associated with a lift followed by a letdown. The  effects  of the caffeine in coffee are immediate and sometimes arouse  feelings of anxiety  known as coffee jitters. Many varieties of decaffeinated coffees are available on the market today. Note: Studies have shown that tea or coffee drunk in moderation (two [it reported] cups of coffee a day and four or five cups of black tea) has no harmful effects Lifestyle differences Tea  is a genteel beverage requiring preparation and time to sip. The pace is always slow, calm and tranquil, the beverage soothing. On the other hand, the  coffee  culture  can be fast paced and frantic. Images of people in lines at the drive-through talking into microphones and driving around buildings to pick up huge paper cups of the daily special come to mind. Popularity Coffee is extremely popular in the United States. The average American drinks 23 gallons of coffee every year.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

a summary of American Constitution essays

a summary of American Constitution essays The Preamble to the Constitution contains powerful language that is the bedrock of American political tradition. The opening line: We the People of the United States proclaims that the states remain in a unity and that they are not independent of one another. With these words the loose confederation of independent states ceased to exist after ratification of the Constitution. The Preamble also answers the question of the source of power of the government: the power comes from the people, not from the states. The phrase [I]n Order to form a more perfect Union implies that at the time of forming the country, the Articles of Confederation were weak in governing a growing nation. Next come the general goals for the American nation (originally set up by the Framers): establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity. The following words: do ordain and establish thi s Constitution for the United States of America pose the formal creation of the new government after the ratification. Article I vests all legislative powers in the Congress and establishes a bicameral legislature, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It also sets out the qualifications for holding office in each house, the terms of office, methods of selection of representatives and senators, and the system of apportionment among the states to determine membership in the House of Representatives. The Article I, section 8 contains enumerated powers and elastic clause. Article II vests the executive power- the authority to execute the laws of the nation in a president of the United States. Section 1 sets the presidents term of office at four years, explains the electoral college, states qualifications for office and describes a mechanism to replace the president in case of death ...

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Soar Like An Eagle †Theology Essay

Soar Like An Eagle – Theology Essay Free Online Research Papers Soar Like An Eagle Theology Essay They were not exactly barnyard buddies. As black clouds roiled high overhead and thunder rumbled in the distance, two birds looked up at the ominous sky. Though the two birds had lived in the barnyard since infancy they were as different as night and day. The chicken, with her beak down, was busy pecking in the dirt and trash. She scratched in the debris searching for worms, scraps, and corn. She frantically finished her meal before she ran to the barn for refuge from the storm. The appearance and actions of the other bird were quite opposite of the chicken. He sat on a fence post, his head lifted to the sky, and his sharp eyes piercing the dark rolling clouds over the mountain peak. As he stretched his wings, gusts of wind almost lifted him from his perch. The feathers of his wings that had once been clipped to prevent him from flying away had once again grown to their full length. Something stirred within his breast. Suddenly his keen eyes spotted a lone eagle soaring high above the storm clouds. He heard the sharp cry of the soaring eagle. The young eagle instinctively spread his wings. A gust of wind lifted him from his fence post and with a scream of freedom; he mounted up higher and higher on the air currents. He left the barnyard forever. Eagles were made to soar not to live their lives like a chicken in the barnyard eating grubs and worms. When Jesus referred to chickens, he illustrated the type of people in Jerusalem who would not listen to his message. They travel in crowds, broods, and are earth-bound. They keep their eyes on the things of the world. They never lift up their heads to see Him who is above. They live on handouts and whatever unclean things they can find. Chickens cannot fly except to find a roost. They are confined by fences and are satisfied. Eagles are born to soar. He has inherited a nature that cannot and will not survive captivity. They must be free to soar high in the sky. It may seem lonely up there, but the eagle doesn’t care. Because it is his nature to soar – not live with the multitudes in captivity. God’s Word has much to say about the eagle. â€Å"There are three things that amaze me – no, four things I do understand: how an eagle glides through the sky† (Proverbs 30:18, 19 NLT). You were created to soar like an eagle – not to live like a chicken. How can you come into your God given destiny and live the eagle life? First – an eagle must BE BORN AN EAGLE. Someone once said, â€Å"If it quacks like a duck, walks like a duck, and looks like a duck – it is a duck.† An eagle must be born an eagle to be an eagle. Jesus said, â€Å"You must be born again† (John 3:3). â€Å"That which is of the flesh is flesh, that which is of the spirit is spirit.† When Adam sinned, sin came on the entire human race. Our spirit died. Jesus said we need a spiritual rebirth. When one puts faith in the sacrifice of Christ on the cross for their sins and receive Him as personal Savior and Lord, they are born again. They become like an eagle. â€Å"For as many as received Him gave He power to become sons of God, even as many as believed on Him† (John 1:12). Second – eagles must FLY LIKE AN EAGLE. You may become a Christian, but you must learn to live like an eagle Christian. Eagles are symbolic of a certain type of person. â€Å"But they that wait upon the Lord . . . shall mount up with wings as eagles† (Isaiah 40:31). All children of God must learn to â€Å"mount up† like an eagle. Only those who will come to wait in His presence will be conformed to the image of the Son of God and rule and reign with Him forever. The glory that shines from His face changes them from the image of the earthly into the image of their regal heavenly king. We can learn much about soaring like an eagle from Deuteronomy 2:11. It tells how the eagle gets his introduction to the practice of soaring in the heavens. The mother eagle â€Å"stirs up her nest†, â€Å"flutters over her young†, â€Å"spreads abroad her wings†, and â€Å"bears them on her wings.† The time comes when every eagle must leave the soft, secure nest and live the eagle life. Looking down from the heights of its nest is scary for the young eaglet. It’s also dangerous. He is reluctant to venture out, so the mother makes it very uncomfortable in the nest. She tears up the soft bed, beats her wings over the eaglets, and finally spreads her wings and the eaglet is taken for a ride on her back. Suddenly the eaglet tumbles off and must either spread its wings and learn to fly or crash to the ground. Tumbling end over end, the eaglet utters a frightened screech. After what seems like almost certain death, the mother eagle flies underneath and â€Å"bears it up on eagles wings†, until it learns to soar like an eagle. Friend, God wants you to soar like an eagle. Be free from scratching in the dirt with the chickens. Commit your life to the Lord Jesus Christ. Learn to wait in His presence daily. â€Å"They that wait on the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall mount up on wings as eagles† (Isaiah 40:31). Research Papers on Soar Like An Eagle - Theology EssayThe Spring and AutumnPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyThe Masque of the Red Death Room meanings19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraUnreasonable Searches and SeizuresThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationHip-Hop is ArtGenetic EngineeringComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoThe Hockey Game

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Trategic Marketing Plan of amung Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Trategic Marketing Plan of amung - Essay Example In other wordÃ'•, when marketing their productÃ'•, whether locally or globally, firmÃ'• need to create a Ã'•ucceÃ'•Ã'•ful mix of:* the right product* Ã'•old at the right price* in the right place* uÃ'•ing the moÃ'•t Ã'•uitable promotion.Product DeciÃ'•ionÃ'•A product iÃ'• defined aÃ'•: "Anything that iÃ'• capable of Ã'•atiÃ'•fying cuÃ'•tomer needÃ'•". Then the product iÃ'• the central point on which marketing energy muÃ'•t focuÃ'•. Finding out how to make the product, Ã'•etting up the production line, providing the finance and manufacturing the product are not the reÃ'•ponÃ'•ibility of the only marketing function. It iÃ'• alÃ'•o concerned with what the product meanÃ'• to the cuÃ'•tomer. Marketing, therefore, playÃ'• a key role in determining Ã'•uch aÃ'•pectÃ'• aÃ'•:* The appearance of the product - in line with the requirementÃ'• of the market* the function of the product - productÃ'• muÃ'•t addreÃ'•Ã'• the needÃ'• of cuÃ'•tomerÃ'• aÃ'• identified through market reÃ'•earch.BuÃ'•ineÃ'•Ã'•eÃ'• needs to regularly develop new productÃ'• and marketÃ'• for future growth. A uÃ'•eful way of looking at growth opportunitieÃ'• iÃ'• theAnÃ'•off Growth Matrix which Ã'•uggeÃ'•tÃ'• that there is four main wayÃ'• in which growth can be achieved through a product Ã'•trategy:(1) Market penetration - IncreaÃ'•e Ã'•aleÃ'• of an exiÃ'•ting product in an exiÃ'•ting market(2) Product development - Improve preÃ'•ent productÃ'• and/or develop new productÃ'• for the current market(3) Market development  

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Assignment 6 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Assignment 6 - Essay Example At their back are puppeteers, a representation of establishments who are casting shadows on the wall, where the prisoners can now experience the actual form of reality. They are inherently mistaken for reality. This is because the puppeteers behind the prisoners are using objects to cast shadows in front of the prisoners who are cannot turn back their heads as a form of reality to them. The prisoner is forced to face the fire after being released and the objects that to him once dictated reality to him, now show forms of reality that is accepted. This development indicates that what is perceived to be reality ever since we are born is untrue based on the grounds of imperfect interpretations or reflections of reality (Gaarder 81). This Allegory is a representation of a complex model in which we travel in our lives to reach the understanding of realty. The progress in the development of human represents our own path to finish the awareness in which the realty and the false will reach. The story presents a special view in which reality plays in our lives, and how a person understands. The mankind is stuck in the cave through their own ignorance, believing that what is before them is reality. They do not seek the knowledge of their senses, but instead look beyond their senses to find the underlying causes of things. Rene Descartes presented the idea that, he could not trust his senses and all he thought to be existing should be doubted. He gave three examples to his skepticism. First, is the deception of the senses as they deceive him, the deception of a dream which he termed as false experiences, and lastly the deception of God as an evil demon that is able to trick him as to what he experienced is real. Although many philosophers have found skeptical arguments as false, I think the dreaming argument can stand out to be real. It discredits sensory beliefs. So the dream argument is skeptical. For example, one may lie in bed and get

Monday, November 18, 2019

Unregistered Designs Rights Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Unregistered Designs Rights - Essay Example Unregistered Designs Rights Unregistered design right are rights that are used to prevent unauthorized copying of original designs. There are two types of such rights that is, the one that deals with English rule4s while the other deals Community unregistered design that covers European Community. These rights co-exist but sometimes differ from each other where some designs can be protected by the two rights depending on the issues at hand. Fisher defines a design as a product according to its shape or either ornamentation. Definition of a design varies among different types of legal protection. It relates to technical principles of its operation and construction UK UDR stipulates that the owner of the right be given the right against unauthorized copying of their design. The owner also has the right to prevent unauthorized dealing by importation, sale, and possession. It does not involve any formal registration since it comes into existence automatically when it has been created. Design rights usually protect the appearance of a product but not how it works or its construction .However if products are visible in normal use of the said product they can be protected. Unregistered design rights protects against copying of the original design. The EU part of the right expires in three years from first disclosure that is done publicly. The UK protection however lasts longer than this.

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Natural Insulation Materials Construction Essay

The Natural Insulation Materials Construction Essay This is usually the type of building that are considered alternative today, have their heredity in structures that humans have been constructing for centuries. The reason why these building techniques are gaining popularity in modern times is twofold. First, the old building techniques are far more eco-friendly than the majority structures we used to seeing; second, these structures are simple enough in nature that they can built cheaply and can be built without the aid of a lot of the heavy and expensive equipment which is normally related with most new construction. Currently words such as green, sustainable and alternative get used often in the construction industry, which make its pretty confusing and difficult to tell if any one particular method or material fall under one or many of these heading. The report will help identify, green alternative building method and materials which are less damaging to the environment than a similar practice used in conventional lumber-framed construction. The need to find alternative practices will encompass any building technique that can be done repeatedly without changing the environment in any noticeable way. The Importance of Finding alternative Materials As the world population continues to grow at an alarming rate, people are realizing that planet cannot sustain such continuous and exponential growth. With land being increasable limited and we are continually diminishing our natural resource such are timber, with majority of it being used to build homes. It is evident that we cannot continue to use our natural material at this rate to build our homes. With the awareness of these natural materials become increasing limited, has made the construction industry rethink their way and start to think more about sustainable construction. Using alternative material for 8building homes is much more environmental sustainable than conventional homes building. Depending on the type and amount of sustainable materials used, these types of alternative material can reduce the carbon footprint which is produce in building homes. According to the Worldwatch Institute, an independent organization that analyzes critical global issues, one-fourth of the worlds wood and one-sixth of its fresh water are used  in building construction. This situation will only become worse as the worlds population and more people continue to migrate toward cities. The greater demands also will add pressure on increasingly scarce essential resources, especially water. The Environment The environment has now become issues and with it being heightened news, the Governments and individuals have seem to take notice and now taking to make a change because we cannot continuing abusing the environment, this is not an option anymore. The chart below shows the proportion of CO2 emissions in the UK from buildings in use, the construction process (mainly due to the CO2 from the manufacture of building materials) and from all other sectors including industry, transport, agriculture etc. Buildings in use contribute about half of our CO2 emissions (and consume about half of our energy use). Figure 1 CO2 emissions The next chart shows where these emissions come from and with over half of our energy use and CO2 emissions from building use come from heating our buildings. Figure two Energy Waste. Government Action The UK government have stated that England must take action now, in order to make vast improvement to energy efficiency in both new and existing buildings. The government have set many ambitious goals, an example of one: they anticipate dramatic energy reductions to achieve its goal that all new homes in England will be carbon-neutral by 2016. World Business Council for Sustainable Development (2007) There are three main approaches to energy neutrality: Cut buildings energy demand by, for example, using equipment that is more energy efficient Produce energy locally from renewable and otherwise wasted energy resources Share energy create buildings that can generate surplus energy and feed it into an intelligent grid infrastructure. Efficiency gains in buildings are likely to provide the greatest energy reductions and in many cases will be the most economic option. A study by McKinsey estimated that demand reduction measures with no net cost could almost halve expected growth in global electricity demand. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report estimates that by 2020 CO2 emissions from building energy used can be reduced by 29% at no net cost World Business Council for Sustainable Development (2007) and a cost curve for greenhouse gas reduction, McKinsey Quarterly 2007 Number 1. Fox and Murrell (1989) state the fundamental ecology principle of renewable material, such as wood is sustainable source and are renewable however, for materials like metal, plastic, gravel and sand, stone-based materials such as cement, concrete and plaster, have been used cannot be used again, their consumption if the earth itself. (Berge, 1992) The extraction of certain raw material can be very destructive effects especially to the water table and wildlife habitats. Over usage of these materials can affect the availabilities of in the near future, cause environmental degradation, and contribute to global warming. Impact of the Construction The industry has a major impact on the environment, it affect are not only on the resources it consumes but also the waste it produces. The construction industry is accountable for producing a whole variety of different wastes, the amount and type of which depends on factors such as the stage of construction, type of construction work and practices on site. In Great Britain, over 90% of non-energy minerals is extracted and are used to supply the construction industry with materials. Furthermore, every year more than 70 million tonnes of construction and demolition waste has been produced in England and Wales The key is alternative basic materials because they have historically driven innovation in every industry, and could spur significant advances in todays housing. In order to gain acceptance, however, basic alternative materials must offer more benefits than the traditional materials or methods they replace. They must reduce costs, increase design flexibility, enhance sustainability, perform multiple functions, have superior performance characteristics, or meet a market niche. Another potential driver for adopting alternative basic materials is a shortage of existing natural materials or concerns about their long-term sustainability. Martà ­n(2005) states that in recent years, there has been a shortages of core natural resources; including lumber, steel, and gypsum, and this has driven construction costs higher. This volatility of supply and price motivates the industry to look for more sustainable solutions. Sustainability and resource shortages, in fact, will help to drive innovati ons in the future. The objective of alternative basic materials is to develop new materials that spur innovation by serving multiple functions, increasing cost-effectiveness and efficiency, and using more sustainable materials. In many cases, these technologies form building systems that enable other Concept Home principles such as integrated functions, floor plan flexibility, and improved production processes. Alternative basic materials consist of core technologies that manufacturers can use to create products or systems and composite systems that builders can purchase and use to build homes. Martà ­n(2005) Before considering the use of alternative materials, and before implementing into homes, practical issues must be considered, (Berge, 1992) say to be realistic to imagine a technology that functions in line holistic ideas, none-mainstream approach but also providing humanity with an acceptable material standard of living, basically Berge is trying to say there just be a balance between the Eco approach and what consumer want. Government Schemes and Regulation After The Stern Review (2006) which advised that the implications of climate change couldnt be avoided any longer and urgent action was required, the government took notice and started implementing changes to building regulations. In 2007, the Government introduced the  Code for Sustainable Homes  to help improve the energy efficiency and sustainability of houses, by setting target for all new houses to achieve a carbon rate of zero by 2016. This is a level 6 in the Code for Sustainable. Currently, the standards of the code are not mandatory for private house builders but there are intentions to incorporate them into the  Building Regulations over the next couple years, starting with changes to Part L in 2010. CAN I ADD MORE Constructing environmental friendly house To construct an environmental friendly houses are to focus on reducing the environmental impact of both its  construction  and its ongoing  operation. This is achievable at the design phase by selecting the correct material and the process. Environmental friendly houses and sustainable construction offer an exciting future for building houses. With the prospect of living in an environmentally efficient house that can generate its own power. Also reducing waste and running costs, safe in the knowledge that your house is not effecting but instead helping the environment. This is a positive step for a sustainable future. It is well documented the impacts that human activity has had on our planet and with the Office for Climate Change 2010, attributing 27% of the UKs total carbon emissions to household heating and electricity, house construction is an area where we can make a huge difference. Ecological impact During the development and construction stages of house being built, a ecological assessment should be carried out that reduces its impact. Also the see if it is feasible to create new habitats in the form of green or living roofs. Materials Houses are constructed using a vast range of products and materials from a range of sources. For each one the industry must need to consider: The sustainability of the raw materials used. The lifespan of the material. Its performance characteristics as part of the building fabric. The energy use and waste generated from: The acquisition of raw materials. Processing. Transportation. Manufacture. The possibility for re-use or recyclability at the end of life. the-self-build-guide.co.uk(2009) Luckily, a lot of the legwork has been done for you on this one, with resources such as the BREs Green Guide, which provides environmental ratings for building materials and components. Material specific organisations like the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) only certify timber taken from responsibly managed sources. You can find suppliers who use environmental management systems (EMS) to maximise the environmental efficiency of their businesses. EMS accreditation can be awarded through British Standards (BS) and the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). Alternative building systems improve on standard brick construction through their use of high performance materials and accurate construction techniques. Although many alternative systems involve the construction of buildings in-situ, in the same way that brick buildings are built, there are also many that are turning to off-site construction techniques to improve accuracy. Another benefit of off-site construction Alternative Natural Construction: Building Systems Alternative building systems improve on standard brick construction through their use of high performance materials and accurate construction techniques. Although many alternative systems involve the construction of buildings in-situ, in the same way that brick buildings are built, there are also many that are turning to off-site construction techniques to improve accuracy. Another benefit of off-site construction is that it can drastically reduce waste by up to 90% over traditional building methods. Mud brick Mud brick is a building material, which consists of clay-loam soil puddle with water, sometimes containing straw. The ideal soil requires clay content and the straw can be added to reduce drying and cracking. However, almost any soil can be adapted to make mud bricks; making it one of the most flexible and convenient building methods. It is most popular due to its simplicity, which is easily grasped by the layperson with limited experience, time or resources. If the design and construction are good, the building will last indefinitely. http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/11435929.jpg Mud brick has several advantages over conventional fired clay or concrete masonry. The advantages include: Low in embodied energy Utilisation of natural resources and minimal use of manufactured products Good sound absorption characteristics High thermal mass A claimed ability to breath Suited to a wide range of soils Easily manufactured and worked Flexibility in design/colour/surface finishes Insulation properties similar to those of concrete or brickwork The disadvantages Mud brick building is very labour intensive Texts and magazines suggest it is possible to make 100 bricks per day per person, although that level of productivity comes with experience and fitness! Thousands of bricks are required for most dwellings. Only two or three courses of bricks can be laid at one time, because the courses need to dry out before more are added on top, to prevent the wall slumping or warping. The technique requires a lot of water, which can be a problem in dry areas. Although it is possible to make bricks in wet weather, a large undercover area is needed. Mud brick building is very labour intensive and quite tiring (the most exhausting part is mixing the soil and water). (BBC h2g2, 2003) Timber Wood is a very low carbon and sustainable material, it is important that the wood is ethically sourced and treated. There are types of wooden construction systems, they are: timber framing which is constructed completely on-site Structural Insulated Panels (SIP)- they are manufactured off-site and assemble on-site. Timber framing is a cost effective method of construction which is available , they can be used for buildings up to around seven stories high and can be highly insulated: level 4 or 5 of the Code for Sustainable Homes should be achievable. The drawbacks of timber farming are that construction time to build the walls to the specification at the suppliers. With the possibilities of dry rot or wood worm if the timber is not treated properly in the first place. Which mean that only certified companies can be used. SIPs, this method usages large sheets of plywood or chipboard (more or less) to sandwich to provide a stern insulting core, with these structurally sound panels then joined together to construct the building. SIPs are more expensive, are slightly less flexible in the buildings they produce, but are generally extremely well insulated and airtight: level 6 of the Code for Sustainable Homes is achievable.   The drawback of wood-clad panels is that they do not provide any thermal mass as part of their composition. Frechette (2009) http://www.greenhomebuilding.com/sip.htm, stats that when SIP it will burn, it has been demonstrated that they remain structurally sound for a lengthy period during a fire and do not emit fumes any more hazardous than those of wood products. Another possible concern is with insects or rodents nesting in the insulation since this can be an ideal habitat for them. One last concern is that a well-constructed SIP structure is practically hermetically sealed, which means that the  walls are not breathable; for this reason they require some sort of mechanical ventilation system for healthful habitation. Straw bale Construction http://hurricanecandice.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/straw-bale-home-1.jpg Brian Waite from straw bale house design states that the UK alone produces 4 million tons of surplus straw every year enough for 250,000 homes.  Straw must have the lowest embodied energy of any building material and is probably the cheapest and most sustainable. Straw-bales have an insulation U value much better than required by the building regulations as  well as excellent sound deadening properties which, together, give a living space an ambience that has to be experienced to be appreciated. Contrary to common perception straw-bales in a building, is not a fire risk, is not a vermin risk and are not short-term, but would compost back into the earth if and when required to do so. Straw in bales is so tightly bound that it doesnt contain enough air to support combustion, just add a (carbon neutral) breathing lime render/plaster and any fire regulation requirement is easily met. There is no nutritional value in straw and so it does not attract vermin, it is only voids that vermin like, so proper attention to detail is the only precaution needed. Lime rendered straw-bales breath so evening out fluctuations of humidity thereby creating a healthier environment. Straw bale construction is the use of compressed blocks (bales) of straw, either as fill for a wall cavity (non-load bearing) or as a structural component of a wall (load bearing.) In each case, the interior and exterior sides of the bale wall are covered (by stucco, plaster, clay, or another treatment.) The drawback of straw is that it requires special measures must be taken to provide nailing surfaces, since straw bales do not hold nails as well as wood and anchored to the foundations. The external weatherproof cladding will need to be good, as bales will rot badly if they get damp If straw bales are not available within a few hundred miles of your construction site, the cost of shipping them, along with the potential pollution from the transportation, must be taken into account. Views of the industry Straw bales may be plastered inside and out to provide thermal mass and, like standard construction, the walls must be protected from moisture Straw bale can be more resistant to termites and vermin than stick construction, but (as with any type of construction), elimination of cracks and holes is key Rammed Earth http://cdn.webecoist.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/rammed-earth-home.jpg Rammed earth walls (aka pies) are constructed by the compacting (ramming) of moistened subsoil into place between temporary formwork panels. When dried, the result is a dense, hard monolithic wall. Rammed earth is an ancient form of construction, usually associated with arid areas. There remain plentiful examples of the form around the world evidence that rammed earth is a successful and durable way of building. A few historical rammed earth buildings are to be found in the UK. Rammed earth construction is once again gaining in popularity for home builders looking for eco-friendly options.   With rammed earth, youre using the dirt under your feet (or from a local quarry) to build a house.   This is certainly a green practice since it usually makes use of local materials (local dirt!) and you dont need lumber, quarried stone, brick, etc. to be transported from long distances. Rammed earth construction has its pros and cons of course.   Lets take a look at the positives and negatives. A properly sited and designed rammed earth home is ideal for passive solar strategies, so it can be great for an off-the-grid house.   The thick, dense walls absorb the warmth from the sun all day and slowly release the heat into the interior of the house at night.   This helps keep heating bills low in the winter, and these homes tend to stay cool in the summer as well.   Dirt is an easy-to-acquire material and while there are some requirements (not all dirt is going to have the right mix of sand and clay), you ought to be able to get it locally, so this tends to be an eco-friendly building material. Soil selection needs to be done carefully, and if you are able to use dirt from the building site, youll end up with some big holes you need to figure out how to work into the landscape. Though it might seem that a house made out of dirt would be cheap, rammed earth construction actually tends to cost 5 to 15% more than conventional construction (due to the labour-intensive process of creating the rammed earth forms). Its difficult to impossible to create rounded or sculpturally shaped walls the way you can with other materials.   Homes made with rammed earth construction are going to be boxy in nature.   Constructing a rammed earth house in the UK would probably require extra insulation, (its typical to add foam insulation to exterior walls and then cover it up with stucco) as rammed earth method is not suitable for colder climates Cob http://www.ranchomastatal.com/images/PicsTim100405009.jpg Another mud-hut style of building, but there are occupied cob houses around the UK that are anything up to 500 years old. Not bad for a mud hut. Cob houses are built from a mixture of earth, clay, sand and straw. The ingredients are mixed together with a little water until they form a paste-like substance. The paste is then slapped onto a stone foundation to form walls that are often around two foot thick, then more and more slapped on to form a monolithic structural building. The slap is usually built up in layers about 18 inches high to avoid slumping. The great thing about cob houses is that they can be built into more or less any shape you care to dream up: curves, vaults, domes etc. This can result in some pretty funky buildings. The drawback is that it is very labour intensive and the walls can take up to a year to fully set. Cob is a Cheap, sustainable and eco-friendly method of construction using local materials. This is as load-bearing method of construction and needs no framework. A cob house uses 60 per cent less timber than a stud frame building. a cob house typically uses 20 per cent less energy. Cob house are naturally energy-efficient to cool and heat, provided the builder takes care to insulate the ceiling, and attend to solar positioning advantages. Straw bales embedded into north walls make this truer. Heat tends to pass out through north facing walls. Straw bales tend to keep this heat in, better that only earth, which is more porous for air passage. Contractor do not like working with Cob material as it is time consuming and labour-intensive. It makes the need for community obvious, while demonstrating our inherent unified power. Cob has to breathe to dry out naturally after becoming wet. It used to be that the exterior walls were either left bare or lime rendered (which is expensive these days). Excessive moisture can give you a probleme, as the material needs some moisture (3-5% is considered good much higher than that and you might have rising damp). Cob generally exceeds the minimum u-values for a house. Cost benefits compared below Building system Cost ( £/m2)* Benefits Drawbacks Traditional brick block 800-1500 Well known, flexible, popular, robust, durable. Materials not eco-friendly, high waste, often poor performance. Timber framing 200-1000 Sustainable, cheap, fairly rapid, well known, good performance. Poor image, needs good planning. SIP 300-1300 Sustainable, excellent performance, rapid, can be fairly cheap. Poorly understood, few contractors, inflexible, needs good planning. Straw bale 80-1000 Very sustainable, good performance, can be very cheap. Misunderstood and could have low sale value, limited lifespan, needs very good planning. Rammed earth 500-1500*** Very sustainable, durable, good performance. Misunderstood and could have low sale value, needs insulating, easily water damaged, long build time. Cob 500-1500*** Very sustainable, durable, good performance, very flexible. Misunderstood, needs insulating, easily water damaged, long build time. Traditional Material Traditional Building Method and Materials used The majority of new homes in England and Wales are built using  traditional masonry construction. With most people in the construction industry are familiar with this method. This method has many advantages, such as a deep historical and psychological attachment to masonry construction, which has contributes to its persistence use as the main house building method in the UK. A national survey by MORI found that 61% of respondents would prefer to buy a newly built property of traditional block construction. Most building systems in England and Wales use a timber frame for the skeleton of the house , this is the core of most traditional method of construction, however manufacturing developments have moved many of these methods into the categorization of modern methods of construction discussed below. This is currently second most popular technique for new home construction in the UK and, according to the UK Timber Frame Association, is the fastest growing method of construction in the UK. Traditionally used in North America and Scandinavia, as those areas are rich in timber resources, it comes with some good environmental credentials. http://www.ajbuilding.co.uk/userimages/parsonagefarm3.jpg Before considering what type of alternative method or material to use, we need to understand how current building methods and materials are being used. Below is a basic method Once the excavation and installation of the foundations is completed, the bricklayers erect cavity walls that consist of an inner and outer skin. The inner skin is the main structural element, which supports internal floors and the roof structure. It is constructed using concrete blocks laid on beds of sand and cement mortar. The outer skin of the house is the first line of defence against the elements and provides the aesthetic element to the structure. This is constructed usually with brick, stone or block work, this can produces a number of finishes. The two skins are connected by steel wall ties and separated by a cavity that is partially or fully filled with insulation. Internal floors, they are constructed using timber joists, composite timber beams, or one of many precast concrete systems which are available. The roof is usually traditional cut timber or prefabricated truss construction. Traditional Material Concrete With environment and health issues, concrete are non-toxic stains and sealants can be used. They are Manufacturer of Portland cement contributes between 5-8% of carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse gases, which means concrete is non-green material. It under goes a chemical process of limestone, it creates the same amount of carbon dioxide in weight, but concrete can be grounded and recycled for use in roads and pavements (Holistic Interior Designs,2007) Concrete is often used in the construction and constructing home and is there a need to find an alternative material to replace concrete. Traditional concrete contains material such as stone or other material with similar properties. Concrete is made from gravel, sand, cement and water through a chemical process, the concrete is next, poured into slabs for worktops and panels creating a stone like appearance. The traditional use for concrete are use walls, floors, fireplace surrounds, worktops, panels, wall finishes, concrete furniture, sinks and basins. It offers an exceptionally high lifespan up to 3 times that of alternate building materials The use of concrete has many advantages, Farrell (2009) summaries the advantages and disadvantages of concrete: which are stated below Advantages: Fire, moisture, insect, rot and rust resistant, Can be poured into form Absorbs and retains heat very well, Concrete is water resistant and will not warp, rust or rot. Concrete homes are less affected by flooding or by leaks from tanks or water pipes. Concrete walls between adjoining properties offer high levels of security and peace of mind to property owners. Disadvantages: Which are Poor insulation properties Concrete May Not Offer Pleasant Aesthetic Embodied Energy of concrete manufacture creates very high levels of carbon emission. Origin Extraction of the raw materials in very large quantities has a negative impact on the local surrounding environments. Transportation of raw materials over long distances accounts for further release of carbon dioxide levels into the atmosphere Bricks There are now more environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional concrete on the market, made with hemp or carbon neutral concrete. Traditional concrete should be the last choice. Which will be explain later chapter. Are Bricks Green or Not? (Proefrock, 2007) asks what is brick made of, which is just clay and water and that is it, there are no complex chemicals, no exotic compounds, no imported components. Brick are effectively just a manufactured clay stone with a special shape. It breaks down into earth since it comes from earth. (Proefrock, 2007) Clay mining is comparatively benign, compared to ore mining for metals, which requires far more material to be extracted and processed to produce the finished product. Clay is not a resource that is in short supply, which makes it a more attractive material to use, as well. The main reason brick is not an even greener building material is that it takes a lot of energy to make a brick. However, the extra energy is relative. (Proefrock, 2007) Finding alternative Insulation sustainablebuild.co.uk (2010) state: insulation is a key component of sustainable building design. A well insulated home reduces energy bills by keeping warm in the winter and cools in the summer, and this in turn cuts down carbon emissions linked to global climate change. In regard to energy efficiency, investing in high levels of insulation materials when constructing houses is a cost-effective method of saving energy, rather than investing in expensive heating technologies. It is important to choose the correct type materials in the context of whole building design. Insulation materials are used in roofs, walls and floors. Alternative methods that have solid walls structures from cob and adobe cannot be insulated, Cob and Adobe already offers good thermal mass to compensate. Houses that construction with Timber frame require wall insulation in the form of batts (pre-cut sections that are designed to fit between stud walls), rolls or boards. Other types of construction methods such as brick or concrete insulate with spray foam, loose fill or rolls. Insulation materials work by resisting heat flow, measured by an R-value (the higher the R-value, the greater the insulation). This R-value varies according to material type, density and thickness, and is affected by thermal bridging, unwanted heat flo

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

History and Advantages of High Fructose Corn Syrup Essay -- Artificial

The History and Advantages of High Fructose Corn Syrup HFCS is a popular sweetener used in processed foods. It is composed of approximately 50% fructose and 50% glucose. It is made from corn starch with the use of enzymes to convert glucose to fructose. It has many advantages over cheap sugar, including, but not limited to, lower price, longer shelf life, low freezing point, and enhanced taste and texture. Corn refinement was first discovered circa 1860, and was soon followed by the development of corn syrup. Important advantages took place in the 1920’s with the use of enzymes, but it was not until the mid-1900’s when the crucial glucose isomerase enzyme was discovered. Industrial production of HFCS began in the 1970’s and today the industry is huge. High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) is a sweetener used in many consumer products. Because it is as sweet as sugar, yet cheaper, HFCS is used in many processed food products. Like sugar, it has four calories per gram and has no added artificial or synthetic materials. HFCS is made from corn refinement. First, starch must be separated from the rest of the corn. The starch is then treated with the enzyme glucose isomerase, which converts glucose into fructose. Fructose is an isomer of glucose; both have the empirical formula C6H12O6, but in different bonding. Glucose and fructose bonded together make sucrose, commonly known as table sugar. However, they are found separately in HFCS. Supporters of HFCS claim that it causes no more harm to the body than sugar does because both HFCS and sugar have fructose and glucose in approximately one to one ratios. There are three main types of HFCS: HFCS-42, HFCS-55, HFCS-90. HFCS-42 is 42% fructose and 50% glucose. It is the least sweet of the ... ... Shaft." Freedom Daily Apr. 1998. The Future of Freedom Foundation. 25 July 2006 . Path: James Bovard; FFF articles; The Great Sugar Shaft "Corn Subsidies in United States." Environmental Working Group's Farm Subsidy Database. Nov. 2005. Environmental Working Group. 25 July 2006 . Path: Top Programs; Corn Subsidies. HFCS Facts. 25 July 2006 . "High Fructose Corn Syrup." Learn about Kosher. OU Kosher. 25 July 2006 . "Vignette 4 Bioprocess Engineering for High-Volume Products: The Case of Corn and the Wet-Milling Industry." Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engineering. 1992. 27-29. The National Academic Press. 25 July 2006 .

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Course Project

I have been In my current career field since approximately 1986. At that time, I was employed by a local county In Utah. The Job entailed helping juveniles who were being transitioned from their residential level of care to a higher level of care and vice versa. This was a standard government job that had a 9 to 5 work schedule with traditional benefits, I often think back to if I stayed there I would have retired by now.At the time, I was attending undergraduate school at the university of Utah. I had actually obtained this Job through the university. I continued to work in these types of low paying positions until my current move to Colorado Springs in 2002. The first job here was at an agency that was also a traditional type with traditional benefits and schedule. It did not pay too well and it was very demanding on me emotionally. After understanding how the agency was being paid by referral agency's I got an idea.This idea was that could contract for the service from particular agencies and an independent contractor. I could underbid the other agencies as well as receive almost 3 times as much pay. However, this would not Include benefits or have Income taxes removed. After I discussed this with my wife I decided to pursue this type of employment. I had already established my reputation In the community as a successful counselor. My specialty was working with teenagers who were struggling Witt their parent's and/or â€Å"at rise teenagers. I was able to obtain my in counseling as well.It seemed all was well for about 8 years. Problem Statement Masters degree In 2008, the economy went down and I lost a lot of my referrals as agency's started to ND services to meet their overdrawn budgets. I lost our house and had to rent. A colleague and I decided to combine contracts with some referral agencies and began to collaborate. We created a private practice as well. This has been very successful until recently when I was informed that some referral agencies were beginning to scrutinize the referral process to reduce services and meet budget demands.Again, referrals were reduced dramatically. I am at a decision making point whether to remain in this type of business or seek employment as a traditional worker for a government agency. I am 48 years old now. I am considering a career change. I am at a point in my life where I am thinking about retirement and having a Job that will be stable financially and provide necessary medical benefits as I am getting older and my health is starting to deteriorate. What is the general nature of the problem?My decision problem is deciding whether to quit my current employment as a private practice therapist and take a Job that will include traditional hours and benefits that my current employment does not have while continuing to be a therapist. What event triggered the situation? I was informed by a money manager accountant that I may not be receiving payment for a large piece of my billing for a particul ar month of service I provided. The reason given was that the referral agency had not paid the money manager. Are we imposing any constraints on the situation?I would not be able to change my employment until I am hired by a â€Å"traditional† employer. The higher paying â€Å"stable† employers are located 50 miles away so I will have to move. What are the underlying elements of the problem? Financial stability – I would like to have an employer that can meet a stability acquirement of being a position that will not be likely to end due too budget cut. Benefits – I would like to be in a position with medical benefits, retirement, and profit sharing. Continue to provide therapy- I would like to continue to be a therapist as I enjoy my career and feel I can still provide healing. Ђ Having to move 50+ miles away. Changing a comfort zone of being independent-This will probably be the most difficult of this position change. I can make or change my schedule at a moments notice. This allows me to be available for my family. Involving my family in the verbal decision and the impact on them. I cannot make this change without confiding in my family as the outcome will have an impact on their lives as well. Are there dependencies on other decisions? I have an established rapport in this community and have gained a large referral base because to this.This will help me to obtain a position in my career titled have current clients who will not be receiving a continuation of my intervention. My clients have become used to my service which is unique to me. I have a great attachment to being an independent contractor with all of the self-sufficient privileges. Objectives Statement I would like to make a decision on the direction of my long term career. This should be self-fulfilling and satisfying in a position that satisfies my career goals and financial goals.This should allow for personal growth, financial growth and the ability to provide a therapeutic service to clients that promotes long term success in their specific therapeutic needs. I want to be in a position that will be working towards retirement. I also want a position that will also provide health benefits. Fundamental Objectives fundamental objectives are to obtain a position that will be stable financially and be bled to provide benefits for medical and retirement. My meaner objectives are objectives that will help me obtain my fundamental objectives.I will determine which options that I have and what my overall cost financially and for my overall career will Alternatives After researching what my objectives are and determining my meaner objectives, I have found that I have three alternatives: Remain at my current agency where I have no benefits but I have independence in my schedule and direction of therapeutic service I provide to my clients. I am my own boss and am responsible for he hours I need to meet my personal financial demands. I will be able to r emain in my current location.I could move from within the city to a residence where there is more demand for my therapeutic service. My wife would not need to eventually change her Job if I stay with this position. Seek a position with a government agency where I can continue to be a therapist and provide a consistent intervention to meet client's therapeutic needs. This will have medical benefits and a plan for retirement. I would have a supervisor who will determine my financial growth. This session will require a movement approximately 50 miles away. I have a brother and sister who would be residing closer to me if I move.My wife could potentially keep her employment but transfer. She could potentially earn a position that would be better financially. She may have to change her current career if she cannot transfer. Seek a position with an agency that is not a government agency but I will need to cater the intervention to the specific clientele and adhere to the agency's specific intervention.. I would have a supervisor who will determine my financial growth. This position will provide medical benefits a retirement plan and potential for profit sharing. This would also require me to move approximately 50 miles away.I have decided that I would not like t compete with my current agency. This position will impact my wife similarly to the second alternative position. Selection As part of this process of selection I asked myself the following questions: Will I become bored with the position? I will be at this Job everyday and must come to the realization that I must be able to keep interested to avoid becoming bored. It the session one I will look forward to everyday? I currently enjoy my current Job. I feel at times at I TN t is not a Job but more to a rewarding elite to providing healing to others in need. ЂCan I see myself at this Job at a retirement age? I want to be able to visualize walking out the door with a great feeling rather than a feeling that i s cynical. Am I taking this position because I have to or want to? I do not want to make a decision that If I don't need to I won't. I have made decisions in the past that I regretted because I should have been focused on other priorities. Descriptions of Alternatives- My change decision have three alternatives that I need to determine what I must decide. They involve the actual decision making process and consequence.Alternative A- I make no changes and stay in current role, current pay and benefits. This has some risk but less that the other alternatives because I am aware of what I currently have. Alternative B- I will work in my role until I have the capital to move slowly. This alternative adds practicality to my decision. I currently cannot afford to move. I have estimated that it would cost approximately $5000 to eve from my location to Denver which is where I would need to move. This has more risk that alternative A but less than alternative C. Alternative C- If I move now w hich entails more risk financially.I could obtain a better position. I could reside closer to family siblings. I could potentially earn a higher salary. I could earn benefits. This would also give me weekends off and be home after pm every day. Consequences I ranked the alternative according to the potential risks. Alternative A had the least risk ( appendix A). Then I scored the financial cost (5 points), the lowest potential rate of redo (2 points), looking forward everyday (2 points), potential for retirement (2 points) and is the position want or a need (2 points) (Appendix B).If I were to use the additional factors, I could conclude to choose Alternative B. I could do this and if the economy was to improve and there was not a need for change other than a want for retirement. I have also determined that I could also potentially increase my referral base and meeting my temperamental objective. Conclusion The theory of rational choice making assumes that the relative favorite betw een two options does not depend on the presence of other options (Taverns and Simonton 1993).I have made decisions in the past without using a rational tool or additional meaner that can help without using emotions that were impulsive. In other words, rational choices satisfy the independence of irrelevant alternatives (IA) assumption Luck 1959). There are times that we are driven by emotions to make a decision that will have a impact that can affect our lives but have irrelevant consequences especially if we deduce that a fundamental objective is not connected in a long term decision.I feel that both career and mental health counseling skills are necessary to assist with the emotions of fear, anxiety, depression and self-doubt, as well as with career formation change, decision making, and implementation of a career change (Niles ; Harris-Bowlines, 2009). Elf we do not address these areas specifically as well urine this process of making a choice such as mine there could be addition al long term consequences. As I have stated in previous sections, I will remain at my current position. Course Project I have been In my current career field since approximately 1986. At that time, I was employed by a local county In Utah. The Job entailed helping juveniles who were being transitioned from their residential level of care to a higher level of care and vice versa. This was a standard government job that had a 9 to 5 work schedule with traditional benefits, I often think back to if I stayed there I would have retired by now.At the time, I was attending undergraduate school at the university of Utah. I had actually obtained this Job through the university. I continued to work in these types of low paying positions until my current move to Colorado Springs in 2002. The first job here was at an agency that was also a traditional type with traditional benefits and schedule. It did not pay too well and it was very demanding on me emotionally. After understanding how the agency was being paid by referral agency's I got an idea.This idea was that could contract for the service from particular agencies and an independent contractor. I could underbid the other agencies as well as receive almost 3 times as much pay. However, this would not Include benefits or have Income taxes removed. After I discussed this with my wife I decided to pursue this type of employment. I had already established my reputation In the community as a successful counselor. My specialty was working with teenagers who were struggling Witt their parent's and/or â€Å"at rise teenagers. I was able to obtain my in counseling as well.It seemed all was well for about 8 years. Problem Statement Masters degree In 2008, the economy went down and I lost a lot of my referrals as agency's started to ND services to meet their overdrawn budgets. I lost our house and had to rent. A colleague and I decided to combine contracts with some referral agencies and began to collaborate. We created a private practice as well. This has been very successful until recently when I was informed that some referral agencies were beginning to scrutinize the referral process to reduce services and meet budget demands.Again, referrals were reduced dramatically. I am at a decision making point whether to remain in this type of business or seek employment as a traditional worker for a government agency. I am 48 years old now. I am considering a career change. I am at a point in my life where I am thinking about retirement and having a Job that will be stable financially and provide necessary medical benefits as I am getting older and my health is starting to deteriorate. What is the general nature of the problem?My decision problem is deciding whether to quit my current employment as a private practice therapist and take a Job that will include traditional hours and benefits that my current employment does not have while continuing to be a therapist. What event triggered the situation? I was informed by a money manager accountant that I may not be receiving payment for a large piece of my billing for a particul ar month of service I provided. The reason given was that the referral agency had not paid the money manager. Are we imposing any constraints on the situation?I would not be able to change my employment until I am hired by a â€Å"traditional† employer. The higher paying â€Å"stable† employers are located 50 miles away so I will have to move. What are the underlying elements of the problem? Financial stability – I would like to have an employer that can meet a stability acquirement of being a position that will not be likely to end due too budget cut. Benefits – I would like to be in a position with medical benefits, retirement, and profit sharing. Continue to provide therapy- I would like to continue to be a therapist as I enjoy my career and feel I can still provide healing. Ђ Having to move 50+ miles away. Changing a comfort zone of being independent-This will probably be the most difficult of this position change. I can make or change my schedule at a moments notice. This allows me to be available for my family. Involving my family in the verbal decision and the impact on them. I cannot make this change without confiding in my family as the outcome will have an impact on their lives as well. Are there dependencies on other decisions? I have an established rapport in this community and have gained a large referral base because to this.This will help me to obtain a position in my career titled have current clients who will not be receiving a continuation of my intervention. My clients have become used to my service which is unique to me. I have a great attachment to being an independent contractor with all of the self-sufficient privileges. Objectives Statement I would like to make a decision on the direction of my long term career. This should be self-fulfilling and satisfying in a position that satisfies my career goals and financial goals.This should allow for personal growth, financial growth and the ability to provide a therapeutic service to clients that promotes long term success in their specific therapeutic needs. I want to be in a position that will be working towards retirement. I also want a position that will also provide health benefits. Fundamental Objectives fundamental objectives are to obtain a position that will be stable financially and be bled to provide benefits for medical and retirement. My meaner objectives are objectives that will help me obtain my fundamental objectives.I will determine which options that I have and what my overall cost financially and for my overall career will Alternatives After researching what my objectives are and determining my meaner objectives, I have found that I have three alternatives: Remain at my current agency where I have no benefits but I have independence in my schedule and direction of therapeutic service I provide to my clients. I am my own boss and am responsible for he hours I need to meet my personal financial demands. I will be able to r emain in my current location.I could move from within the city to a residence where there is more demand for my therapeutic service. My wife would not need to eventually change her Job if I stay with this position. Seek a position with a government agency where I can continue to be a therapist and provide a consistent intervention to meet client's therapeutic needs. This will have medical benefits and a plan for retirement. I would have a supervisor who will determine my financial growth. This session will require a movement approximately 50 miles away. I have a brother and sister who would be residing closer to me if I move.My wife could potentially keep her employment but transfer. She could potentially earn a position that would be better financially. She may have to change her current career if she cannot transfer. Seek a position with an agency that is not a government agency but I will need to cater the intervention to the specific clientele and adhere to the agency's specific intervention.. I would have a supervisor who will determine my financial growth. This position will provide medical benefits a retirement plan and potential for profit sharing. This would also require me to move approximately 50 miles away.I have decided that I would not like t compete with my current agency. This position will impact my wife similarly to the second alternative position. Selection As part of this process of selection I asked myself the following questions: Will I become bored with the position? I will be at this Job everyday and must come to the realization that I must be able to keep interested to avoid becoming bored. It the session one I will look forward to everyday? I currently enjoy my current Job. I feel at times at I TN t is not a Job but more to a rewarding elite to providing healing to others in need. ЂCan I see myself at this Job at a retirement age? I want to be able to visualize walking out the door with a great feeling rather than a feeling that i s cynical. Am I taking this position because I have to or want to? I do not want to make a decision that If I don't need to I won't. I have made decisions in the past that I regretted because I should have been focused on other priorities. Descriptions of Alternatives- My change decision have three alternatives that I need to determine what I must decide. They involve the actual decision making process and consequence.Alternative A- I make no changes and stay in current role, current pay and benefits. This has some risk but less that the other alternatives because I am aware of what I currently have. Alternative B- I will work in my role until I have the capital to move slowly. This alternative adds practicality to my decision. I currently cannot afford to move. I have estimated that it would cost approximately $5000 to eve from my location to Denver which is where I would need to move. This has more risk that alternative A but less than alternative C. Alternative C- If I move now w hich entails more risk financially.I could obtain a better position. I could reside closer to family siblings. I could potentially earn a higher salary. I could earn benefits. This would also give me weekends off and be home after pm every day. Consequences I ranked the alternative according to the potential risks. Alternative A had the least risk ( appendix A). Then I scored the financial cost (5 points), the lowest potential rate of redo (2 points), looking forward everyday (2 points), potential for retirement (2 points) and is the position want or a need (2 points) (Appendix B).If I were to use the additional factors, I could conclude to choose Alternative B. I could do this and if the economy was to improve and there was not a need for change other than a want for retirement. I have also determined that I could also potentially increase my referral base and meeting my temperamental objective. Conclusion The theory of rational choice making assumes that the relative favorite betw een two options does not depend on the presence of other options (Taverns and Simonton 1993).I have made decisions in the past without using a rational tool or additional meaner that can help without using emotions that were impulsive. In other words, rational choices satisfy the independence of irrelevant alternatives (IA) assumption Luck 1959). There are times that we are driven by emotions to make a decision that will have a impact that can affect our lives but have irrelevant consequences especially if we deduce that a fundamental objective is not connected in a long term decision.I feel that both career and mental health counseling skills are necessary to assist with the emotions of fear, anxiety, depression and self-doubt, as well as with career formation change, decision making, and implementation of a career change (Niles ; Harris-Bowlines, 2009). Elf we do not address these areas specifically as well urine this process of making a choice such as mine there could be addition al long term consequences. As I have stated in previous sections, I will remain at my current position.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Red Summer essays

Red Summer essays The Red Scare is about the period in the history of the United States immediately following WWI. The dates are approximately from the Armistice in November of 1918 to the collapse of hyperinflation in 1920. Within these two dates the country witnessednot so much in rapid succession as concurrentlya deadly flu epidemic, a strike wave of unparallel proportions, harsh suppression in some cases of those strikes, race riots, hyper-inflation, mass round-ups and deportations of foreign born citizens, expulsion of duely-elected officials from various offices in government, an incapacitated president, espionage laws, sedition laws and, of course, the advent of Prohibition and women's suffrage. 1919 was characterized by over 3300 strikes and labor violence suddenly erupted in this time. After the war workers had hoped for a better life. The war had brought many industrial employees higher pay, shorter hours, and better working conditions. Many American workers attacked the union activity, in addition inflation was rapidly rising and soon the cost of living was 77 percent higher than before the war. This resulted in workers going on strike. One particular incident was one in Seattle. This strike began with workers who had walked out of their jobs from a shipyard. This began a strike that soon crippled the city. The IWW was the Industrial Workers of the World. This was a group who used strikes, boycotts, and sabotage to get their way. These such tactics added to peoples anxieties. U.S. attorney General Palmer focused on deporting suspected anarchists and communists. This lead to bombings, one that included Palmers porch. Political violence appeared in the form of bombings. One of the worlds worst race riots occurred in Chicago. It all started when a young teenager named Eugene Williams swam in an area located for whites only and was killed by a blow to the head from a rock. After he had drowned from this the pe ...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Coca-Cola Case Study Essays

Coca-Cola Case Study Essays Coca-Cola Case Study Paper Coca-Cola Case Study Paper Company Overview Coca-Cola drink was created in May 1886 by Dr. John Pemberton in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1891, entrepreneur Asa G Candler gained ownership of the Coca-Cola business. Ernest Woodruff bought Coca-Cola for $25 million in 1919. Coca-Cola gradually grew and became one of the world’s largest soft drinks company. Although Coca-Cola also deals with non-carbonated drinks, its primary products are carbonated drinks. PEST Analysis The PEST Analysis is an analysis to examine the macro-environment of Coca-Cola’s operations (Johnson, Scholes and Whittington, 2008). Political Like most companies, Coca-Cola is monitoring the policies and regulations set by the government. There are no political issues in this instance. Economic There is low growth in the market for carbonated drinks, especially in Coca-Cola’s main market, North America. The market growth recorded at only 1% for North America in 2004. Social There are changes in consumers’ lifestyles. Consumers are more health conscious. This affects the Coca-Cola’s sales of the carbonated drinks as consumers prefer non-carbonated drinks such as tea, juices and bottled drinks. Demand for carbonated drinks decreases and this leads to a decrease in Coca-Cola’s revenues. Technological Furthermore, it many are able to better withstand poor trading conditions in one particular market. If products are performing poorly in Mexican for instance, which is experiencing economic problems, this might be offset by a growth in sales in new market economies in eastern Europe such as Hungary, which consumes 153 serving f Coca-Cola per head per year. Lastly, by operating globally Coca-Cola will be able to engage in joint ventures with businesses in local markets and take advantages of their local knowledge and distribution networks. Anchor bottlers, fort example had the management and resources to match the growth targets of the economy. The principle threat for Coca-Cola arising from the globalisation of the world economy ids competition from other drinks manufacturers. It is possible that the hypercompetitive state of many global markets may create future difficulties for Coca-Cola. For example, drinks companies in the Newly Industrialised countries (NICs) may emerge in the 21st century as a threat to Coca-Cola. In addition just as Coca-Cola has benefited from a convergence of consumer tastes which have accompanied globalisation and which has resulted in consumers all over the world drinking its products, so it may suffer from a shift in global drink tastes away from cola drinks, which form the core of Coca-Colas business. Furthermore there is also evidence in the article which suggests that a global approach is not always effective. Despite producing one of the worlds most famous advertisements, it did not sell much of the product. The business changed strategy as a result away from single theme advertising, to take into account the nature into which the company is selling. Lastly, a global approach requires massive investment and expenditure. If the world economy is in recession which particularly affects the USA and other countries buying Coca-Cola products, then the business may be greatly affected. Furthermore there is also evidence in the article which suggests that a global approach is not always effective. Despite producing one of the worlds most famous advertisements, it did not sell much of the product. The business changed strategy as a result away from single theme advertising, to take into account the nature into which the company is selling. Lastly, a global approach requires massive investment and expenditure. If the world economy is in recession which particularly affects the USA and other countries buying Coca-Cola products, then the business may be greatly affected. Furthermore there is also evidence in the article which suggests that a global approach is not always effective. Despite producing one of the worlds most famous advertisements, it did not sell much of the product. The business changed strategy as a result away from single theme advertising, to take into account the nature into which the company is selling. Lastly, a global approach requires massive investment and expenditure. If the world economy is in recession which particularly affects the USA and other countries buying Coca-Cola products, then the business may be greatly affected. Furthermore there is also evidence in the article which suggests that a global approach is not always effective. Despite producing one of the worlds most famous advertisements, it did not sell much of the product. The business changed strategy as a result away from single theme advertising, to take into account the nature into which the company is selling. Lastly, a global approach requires massive investment and expenditure. If the world economy is in recession which particularly affects the USA and other countries buying Coca-Cola products, then the business may be greatly affected.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Strategic Management Corporate Strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Strategic Management Corporate Strategy - Essay Example Do you think your final report based upon the 5 steps chosen in question 1 above would be a valid strategic management process b. What precautions might you want to attach for readers as they read and interpret the report Yes. The final report based on these five steps listed in the earlier question will make up a valid strategic management process. However there are certain points of caution, which the readers should have in their mind. They are: 1. The strategy works towards continuous improvement of the processes or actions to reach the targets set and not to change the target itself in the name of improvement. 2. The strategy choice is based on various factors that make up the corporate strategy. However, the reader should be cautious that the alignment of this strategy to the corporate objective is as per the visualizations done. There could be gaps in them and this needs to be straightened out. 3. The reader should also note that the action plans and functional tactics are based on the various parameters that are available and the experience of the person evaluating the scope of work. There are bound to be some errors and mistakes in this evaluation. 3.(25 points)a. Compare and contrast the nature of external factors with the nature of internal factors. Give three examples each of external and internal factors. b. Discuss an example where an organization might be able to increase its control/influence over an external factor. c. Since external factors can impact the profitability of an organization, why do we have financial performance as an internal factor d. How does misclassifying an internal factor as an external factor in the EFE impact the analysis External factors that considered during analysis are: Opportunities and threats. For... The final report, that was discussed in the essay and based on the five steps, that were listed in the essay will make up a valid strategic management process. However, the researcher states that there are certain points of caution, which the readers should have in their mind. They are: The strategy works towards continuous improvement of the processes or actions to reach the targets set and not to change the target itself in the name of improvement. The strategy choice is based on various factors that make up the corporate strategy. However, the reader should be cautious that the alignment of this strategy to the corporate objective is as per the visualizations done. There could be gaps in them and this needs to be straightened out. The reader should also note that the action plans and functional tactics are based on the various parameters that are available and the experience of the person evaluating the scope of work. There are bound to be some errors and mistakes in this evaluati on. In the end of the essay, the researcher aims to compare and contrast the nature of external factors with the nature of internal factors and also gives three examples, both of external and internal factors, that can impact the profitability of an organization. In conclusion, the researcher discusses how to thoroughly analyze the proposed strategy selection of strengthening the strengths of the company and to capitalize on the same to cash in on the opportunities has been done after a detailed analysis of the existing scenario.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Discussion Questions week 3 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Discussion Questions week 3 - Essay Example Some of the managers were using free or personal Email addresses in business communication and he felt that this was unprofessional. Consequently, he ordered that all employees were only allowed to use Email addresses that included the company domain name and instituted a policy whereby other sites such as MSN and Yahoo would be inaccessible through the company server for the purpose of checking Email accounts. The forces of influence used to make this decision included his business background – he had formerly worked for a software company in which all Email addresses for employees were simple and consistent, his education – with his marketing background he believed that the ability to consistently â€Å"brand† the company would be a benefit, and his fledgling management career – he had only been general manager of the company for several months when the change was instituted and felt the need to exert his power. The campaign to rid of the company of personal Email addresses was instituted in an effective manner. Informative bulletins were sent out for the month prior to the change with clear instructions on how to communicate the change in Email addresses to existing clients who were used to some of the managers’ personal accounts. The managers themselves tried to exert an opposing influence by stating that this new policy would cost them customers who would continue to use the old Email addresses and resist changing to the new ones. These concerns were dealt with in a professional manner and the managers soon realized, with a proper communication campaign before the change took effect, that their clients accepted the new Email addresses. Ultimately, the managers’ discomfort was overcome through a creative process by the general manager in which the communication aspect of the problem became a learning experience in new technology and marketing methods. In the example given above, the

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

19TH Century Industrial Tycoons Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

19TH Century Industrial Tycoons - Assignment Example ng a Robber Baron is a term that was used in the 19th century to refer to businessmen who used exploitation as a means of acquiring their wealth (Josephson, 2010). Rockfeller was known as the first man to become a millionaire in America being termed as the richest man in the world then. Anyone would have thought that he came from a well up family considering the immense wealth he had accumulated. But contrary to this Rockfeller came from a humble beginning in a small town in New York (McNeese, 2009). Despite the great inspiration he offers as a persistent man in his journey to the top, Rockfeller’s reputation is seen as that of a Robber baron. This is so because of the crude ways he used to drive his business way up to the top. The fact that he created a monopoly in the oil business by eliminating his other competitors in the field confirms my opinion that Rockfeller was a greedy man thirsting for more and more money. This is clearly shown when he used to collect rebates from the railroads and hence he was in a position to sell his oil at a cheaper price in certain places (McNeese, 2009). This was a move for him to eliminate local competition by local oil dealers. Rockfeller is on another occasion demonstrated as a robber baron when he created a trust so as to bring together a multitude of oil refineries in a bid to form one big oil refining company (McNeese, 2009). This I believe was in an attempt to strain the competition by merging all the smaller oil refiners in to one big corporation which he owned. By paying small wages to his workers despite the millions that he was making from his oil business, is a move I see as unfair. This is because his business was making huge profits to be able to pay the best wages that the industry deserved. The fact he controlled the rail corporation gave Rockfeller an upper hand over other oil companies. This is why he used intimidation to those who failed to supply the oil to his company demonstrating how dubious his means